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Pi 網絡 – 新的白皮書章節

2021 年 12 月

下面是新的草案我們白皮書的 Pi 供應和採礦部分於 2021 年 12 月發布。挖礦將在主網階段繼續進行,但在有限的供應量內動態調整挖礦率。 有關更多詳細信息,請閱讀新的白皮書部分,這些部分回顧了在主網之前供應和採礦是如何運作的,並描述了它們在主網上將如何以及為什麼會發生變化。 我們還保留之前發布的路線圖章節在底部供參考。 在開放網絡開始時,我們在網站上更新官方白皮書之前,歡迎您提供反饋。


代幣模型與挖礦

一個經過深思熟慮的、健全的代幣設計對於加密貨幣網絡的成功至關重要。 它有可能創造激勵機制來引導網絡的形成和增長,建立一個公用事業驅動的生態系統,從而支持支撐這種系統的加密貨幣。 網絡激勵的內容很大程度上說明了網絡的需求——例如,網絡增長或基本面驅動的實用程序創建,僅僅是價值存儲或加密生態系統的交換媒介。 本章介紹 Pi 的供應以及 Pioneers 如何在網絡的不同階段挖掘 Pi,以及不同挖掘機制的基本設計原理,包括構建和發展網絡以及激勵公用事業和需求。 請注意,Pi 是在其自己的區塊鏈上運行的第一層加密貨幣,這裡的“令牌”指的是。

Pi 供應

Pi Network 的願景是在世界上使用最廣泛的加密貨幣 Pi 的推動下,建立世界上最具包容性的點對點經濟和在線體驗。 為了實現這一願景,重要的是發展網絡並讓 Pi 可廣泛訪問,同時保持區塊鏈的安全性和 Pi 的稀缺性。 雖然這些目標一直指導著代幣供應模型和採礦設計,但關鍵區別在於:主網前階段專注於推動網絡增長和廣泛分發 Pi,主網階段將專注於獎勵更多形式的先鋒貢獻,同時鞏固Pi的供應。

主網前供應

在早期階段,Pi Network 的重點是發展和保護網絡。 引導建立足夠數量的參與者對於任何網絡和生態系統都至關重要。 在使 Pi 成為世界上使用最廣泛的加密貨幣的願景的推動下,分發 Pi 並使其在全球範圍內可訪問進一步增加了對增長的關注。 Pi 的共識算法依賴於全局信任圖,該圖是從各個 Pioneers 的安全圈中聚合而成的。 因此,激勵先驅者組建個人安全圈至關重要。 這意味著可作為挖礦獎勵的代幣供應在主網之前沒有明確限制。

同時,保持 Pi 的一定稀缺性也很重要。 如挖礦部分所述,網絡採用挖礦機制,網絡規模每增加 10 倍,網絡挖礦率減半,當達到參與的先驅者的各個里程碑時,會產生一系列減半事件。 基於此模型的下一個減半事件將是當網絡達到 1 億參與的先驅者時。 目前,我們有超過 3000 萬參與的先驅者。 如果網絡達到一定規模,該網絡還保留了完全停止所有採礦的選項,但尚未確定。 在主網之前沒有行使限制 Pi 供應量的選項,因此總供應量未定義。

主網前的供應模型以及針對可訪問性、增長和安全性量身定制的採礦機制,已經引導了一個由超過 3000 萬參與的先驅者和數百萬相互交織的安全圈子組成的社區。 一種在手機上挖掘 Pi 的簡單、可訪問的方法有助於在全球範圍內廣泛分發代幣,包括由於缺乏資金、知識或技術而被排除在加密革命之外的人群。 通過這樣做,該網絡避免了比特幣和其他加密貨幣中明顯的極端財富集中,準備成為一個真正的點對點去中心化生態系統,擁有足夠多的參與者和交易來創造實用程序。

主網供應

供應推動增長並激勵對網絡的必要貢獻,以實現有機可行的生態系統。 為此,挖礦獎勵將在主網之後繼續,但將採取多種形式來激勵不同類型的貢獻,這將在下面的挖礦部分進行解釋。 在供應方面,由於優化了網絡的可訪問性和增長的預主網挖礦機制導致的未確定供應給主網階段帶來了一些問題,包括計劃的不可預測性、不同類型的必要的過度獎勵和獎勵不足新階段的貢獻,以及對稀缺性的挑戰。 為了解決這些問題,網絡將從完全依賴於網絡行為的主網前供應模式轉變為明確最大供應量的主網供應模式。

在 2020 年 9 月至 2020 年 10 月的 Pi Network 的第一次 COiNVENTION 中,社區小組和社區提交的內容討論了在當時的網絡規模為 1000 萬時,是否應該將挖礦減半或停止。 社區成員的不同聲音為網絡帶來了以下困境。 如果基於正在進行的(主網前)挖礦機制繼續挖礦,那麼由於不確定性而引發了對供應的擔憂,從而引發了 Pi 的稀缺性。 但是,如果挖礦停止,則會損害網絡的發展,並阻止新的先驅者作為礦工加入網絡,從而破壞 Pi 的可訪問性。 儘管該網絡繼續做出該決定並將採礦率減半,達到 1000 萬規模,但這個困境仍然存在,需要解決。

社區如何在解決供應問題的同時實現持續增長和可訪問性是設計主網代幣模型時考慮的主要因素之一。 此外,不確定和不可預測的總供應量使得難以進行整體網絡代幣規劃,因為社區作為一個集體和生態系統本身需要使用一些 Pi 用於有利於社區和整個生態系統的目的,而不僅僅是挖礦對個人的獎勵,幾乎所有其他區塊鍊網絡都證明了這一點。 需要為此類集體社區目的明確分配。 因此,鑑於目前超過 3000 萬的 Pioneers 網絡規模以及未來預期的交易量和活動量,主網供應模型具有明確的最大總供應量 1000 億個 Pi允許激勵持續增長和新貢獻,同時消除對供應不可預測性的擔憂。

供應分配將遵循 2019 年 3 月 14 日白皮書中的原始分配原則——Pi 社區擁有 80%,Pi 核心團隊擁有 Pi 總流通供應量的 20%,無論流通供應量有多少Pi 網絡在任何給定時間點。 因此,給定最大總供應量 1000 億個 Pi,社區最終將獲得 800 億個 Pi,核心團隊最終將獲得 200 億個 Pi。 下面的餅圖描述了整體分佈。 核心團隊的分配以與社區逐漸挖掘越來越多的 Pi 相同的速度解鎖,並且可能會通過自我強制執行額外的鎖定。 這意味著,如果社區有一部分分配在流通(例如,25%),那麼最多只能解鎖核心團隊分配中的比例數量(在本例中為 25%)。

Pi Token supply

上面的分佈表明 Pi Network 沒有任何 ICO 分配,也沒有進行任何類型的 Pi 眾籌銷售。 因此,任何冒充 Pi Network 或其創始人進行銷售或上市的行為都是非法的、未經授權的和虛假的。 這些模仿者與 Pi Core Team 沒有任何關係。 先驅者應提防任何騙局,不要參與。 Pi可以通過為生態系統做出貢獻來自由開採。 此外,所有開采的 Pi 只能通過主網儀表板從 Pi 應用程序內部領取,然後轉移到您的 Pi 錢包中。 任何要求 Pioneers 以其他方式聲明 Pi 的網站都是假的。

80% 的社區供應進一步分為: 65% 分配給所有過去和未來的 Pioneer 挖礦獎勵,位於主網上的地址 GBQQRIQKS7XLMWTTRM2EPMTRLPUGQJDLEKCGNDIFGTBZG4GL5CHHJI25,10% 用於支持社區組織和生態系統建設,最終將由 Pi 基金會管理未來的非營利組織,地址為 GDPDSLFVGEPX6FJKGZXSTJCPTSKKAI4KBHBAQCCKQDXISW3S5SJ6MGMS,5% 預留給流動性池,為 Pi 生態中的先驅者和開發者提供流動性,地址為 GB7HLN74IIY6PENSHHBBJJXWV6IZQDELTBZNXXORDGTL75O4KC5CUXEV。 下表描述了社區供應分佈:

社區分配Pi 社區分佈(預計 800 億個 Pi 總數)
主網前挖礦獎勵200 億 Pi(大約)
主網挖礦獎勵450 億個 Pi(大約)
流動資金池儲備50 億個 Pi(大約)
基金會儲備(贈款、社區活動等)100 億個 Pi(大約)

650 億個 Pi 將分配給所有挖礦獎勵——包括過去和未來的挖礦。 對於過去的挖礦獎勵,到目前為止(在主網之前)所有 Pioneers 開采的所有 Pi 的粗略總和約為 300 億 Pi。 然而,在丟棄假賬戶挖出的 Pi 後,根據 KYC 的速度和參與度,在開放網絡之初,主網前挖出的 Pi 估計在 10 到 200 億之間。 用於挖礦獎勵的 650 億 Pi 供應中的剩餘金額將通過新的 Mainnet 挖礦機制分配給 Pioneers,並具有概念上的年度供應限制。

此類年度供應限制將根據遞減公式確定。 年度限制可以在更精細的基礎上計算,例如按天計算,或者按更小的時間紀元動態計算,具體取決於鎖定率和當時網絡的剩餘供應量等因素。 這種基於粒度時間週期的供應限制計算有助於實現更好、更平滑的時間分配曲線。 這里為了簡單起見,我們假設時間紀元是每年。 遞減公式意味著新主網挖礦第一年的年度供應限額將高於第二年,第二年高於第三年,以此類推。 一旦我們看到有多少 Pioneer 進行了 KYC 以及他們已將多少開采的 Pi 轉移到 Mainnet 中,每年下降的公式和這些數字將需要在 Mainnet 的開放網絡時期啟動時最終確定。

在主網,先驅者將因其對網絡增長和安全性的持續貢獻而獲得獎勵。 如挖礦部分所述,Pioneer 獎勵將進一步多樣化,因為網絡需要在應用程序使用、節點操作和 Pi 鎖定等方面做出更多樣化和更深入的貢獻。 Pre-mainnet Pioneers 將繼續從 Mainnet 挖礦獎勵中為 Pi 和挖礦做出貢獻,以及任何加入網絡的新成員,以確保網絡的增長和壽命。

100 億 Pi 將用於社區組織和生態系統建設,未來將由非營利基金會管理。 大多數去中心化網絡或加密貨幣,即使它們是去中心化的,仍然需要一個組織來組織社區並確定生態系統的未來方向,例如以太坊和恆星幣。 未來的 Pi 基金會將 (1) 組織和讚助社區活動,例如開發者大會、全球在線活動和本地社區會議,(2) 組織志願者和委員會成員,並支付全職員工致力於建設社區和生態系統,(3)收集社區的意見和反饋,(4)組織未來的社區投票,(5)建立品牌並保護網絡的聲譽,(6)代表網絡與其他商業實體互動,包括政府、傳統銀行和傳統企業,或 (7) 為 Pi 社區和生態系統的改善履行任意數量的責任。 此外,為了構建基於實用程序的 Pi 生態系統,基金會將設計、創建和執行各種社區開發者計劃,以資助、孵化、合作等形式支持社區開發者。

50 億個 Pi 將保留給流動資金池,為包括 Pioneers 和 Pi 應用程序開發者在內的任何生態系統參與者提供流動性。 流動性是生態系統可行、活躍和健康的關鍵。 如果企業或個人想要參與生態系統活動(例如,通過在 Pi 中買賣商品和服務),他們必須能夠及時訪問 Pi。 沒有流動性,生態系統將不會有健康的 Pi 流動,從而損害公用事業的創造。

正如在路線圖章節中所討論的,主網封閉網絡時期的一個好處是允許根據早期的主網結果對代幣模型進行校準(如果有的話)。 因此,在開放網絡時期開始之前,令牌模型需要進行調整。 另外,未來為了網絡和生態系統的健康,網絡可能會面臨千億派發完成後是否需要通脹等問題。 通貨膨脹可能是必要的,以通過更多的採礦獎勵進一步激勵貢獻,彌補因事故或死亡而導致的流通中的任何 Pi 損失,提供更多的流動性,減少抑制使用和實用程序創建的囤積等。當時,基金會及其專門從事這些事務的委員會將組織和指導社區以分散的方式就此事達成結論。


挖礦機制

Pi Network 的挖礦機制一直允許 Pioneers 為網絡的增長、分配和安全做出貢獻,並在 Pi 中獲得精英獎勵。 主網前的挖礦機制幫助網絡實現了超過 3000 萬參與成員的驚人增長、廣泛分佈的貨幣和測試網,以及將為 Pi 區塊鏈的共識算法提供數據的 Security Circle 聚合信任圖。

展望主網階段,Pi Network 需要進一步的貢獻,以及來自所有成員的更多樣化類型的貢獻,才能在繼續增長和包容的同時成為真正的經濟體。 在主網階段,我們希望進一步實現去中心化、公用事業、穩定性長壽,此外成長,包容, 和安全. 只有網絡中的所有先驅者齊心協力,才能實現這些目標。 因此,新的 Pi 挖掘機制旨在通過激勵所有先鋒基於相同的精英原則為網絡做出不同貢獻來實現這些目標。 下面,我們首先介紹主網前的挖礦公式,然後是主網公式的變化。

主網前公式

主網之前的挖礦公式展示了先鋒每小時挖礦率的精英決定。 積極挖掘 Pioneers 至少獲得了最低費率,並因其對網絡安全和發展的貢獻而獲得進一步獎勵。 以下公式確定了 Pioneers 每小時開採 Pi 的速率:

M = I(B, S) + E(I),其中

  • M 是 Pioneer 的總挖礦率,
  • I 是個人先鋒基礎挖礦率,
  • B 是全系統的基礎挖礦率,
  • S 是 Security Circle 獎勵,它是來自有效 Security Circle 連接的個人 Pioneer 基本採礦率的一個組成部分,以及
  • E 是來自活躍推薦團隊成員的推薦團隊獎勵。

系統範圍的基本挖礦速率 B 開始為 3.1415926 Pi/h,並且每次 Engaged Pioneers 網絡規模增加 10 倍時減半,從 1000 個 Pioneers 開始。 如下所列,到目前為止已經發生了五次減半事件:

訂婚先驅里程碑B 的值(單位為 Pi/hr,四捨五入到小數點後兩位)I 的值,帶有完整的安全圈(以 Pi/hr 為單位,四捨五入到小數點後兩位*)
< 1,0003.146.28
1,0001.573.14
10,0000.781.57
100,0000.390.78
1,000,0000.190.39
10,000,0000.100.19

這裡,

  • I(B,S) = B + S(B)
  • S(B) = 0.2 • min(Sc,5) • B,其中
    Sc 是有效安全圈連接的計數。
  • E(I) = Ec • I(B,S) • 0.25,其中
    Ec 是同時挖礦的活躍推薦團隊成員的計數。

挖掘公式也可以寫成 B 的倍數:

  • M = I(B,S) + E(I)
  • M = [B + S(B)] + [Ec • I(B,S) • 0.25],或
  • M = [B + {0.2 • min(Sc,5) • B}] + [Ec • 0.25 • {B + {0.2 • min(Sc,5) • B}}],或
  • M = B • [1 + {0.2 • min(Sc,5)} + {Ec • 0.25 • {1 + 0.2 • min(Sc,5)}}],或
  • M = B • [(1 + Ec • 0.25) • {1 + 0.2 • min(Sc,5)}]

Pre-Mainnet 系統範圍內的基礎挖礦率

每個活躍的 Pioneer 至少獲得系統範圍的基本挖礦率 (B)。 也就是說,如果上面的挖礦公式中 Sc = 0 且 Ec = 0,則 M = B。無論如何,Pioneer 的總挖礦率是全系統基礎挖礦率的倍數。 B 的值是在主網之前預先確定的,如上表所示,它只改變了 5 次。 由於前主網挖礦機制的動態進展,例如網絡有多大以及網絡達到下一個減半事件的速度,最大供應量尚未確定。 只有當 B 降到 0 時才能確定。但是,如下節所述,主網 B 的值是實時計算的,根據年度 Pi 供應總量和所有 Pioneer 的總挖礦係數動態調整. 在 Mainnet,Pi 的供應是有限的。

安全圈獎勵

Pi 的共識算法依賴於一個全局信任圖,該圖是由數百萬個相互交織的各個 Pioneers 安全圈聚合而成。 因此,對於每個新的有效安全圈連接,先驅者每小時都會獲得額外的 Pi,最多 5 個這樣的連接。 Security Circles 對 Pi 區塊鏈的安全性至關重要,Security Circle 獎勵通過兩種方式提高了 Pioneer 的總挖礦率:

  • 通過直接添加到個人 Pioneer 基礎採礦率 (I),以及
  • 通過提高推薦團隊獎勵(如果有)。

事實上,一個完整的安全圈——即至少有五個有效連接——使個人 Pioneer 基礎挖礦率和推薦團隊獎勵翻了一番。

推薦團隊獎勵

先驅者還可以邀請其他人加入 Pi Network 並組建他們的推薦團隊。 邀請者和被邀請者平分推薦團隊的獎金獎勵,即他們各自的 Pioneer 基礎挖礦率提高 25%,只要兩者同時進行挖礦。 先驅者每小時挖掘更多 Pi,每個同時挖掘的推薦團隊成員。 該推薦團隊獎勵表彰了先驅者對網絡發展和 Pi 代幣分配的貢獻。

主網挖礦公式

主網階段的目標是在權力下放公用事業, 確保穩定長壽, 並保留生長安全. 如下所述,新公式激勵先驅者做出更多樣化的貢獻來支持這些主網目標,同時保留保護和發展網絡的激勵措施。 和以前一樣,它是精英管理的,表示為 Pioneers 每小時開採 Pi 的速率。

M = I(B,L,S) + E(I) + N(I) + A(I) + X(B),其中

  • 中號是 Pioneer 的總挖礦率,
  • 一世是個人 Pioneer 基礎挖礦率,
  • 是系統範圍內的基本挖礦率(根據可用的 Pi 池在給定時間段內進行調整),
  • 是鎖倉獎勵,是個人先鋒基礎挖礦率的一個新組成部分,
  • 小號是 Security Circle 獎勵,它是來自有效 Security Circle 連接的個人 Pioneer 基本挖礦率的一個組成部分,與主網前挖礦公式中的方式相同,
  • 是來自活躍推薦團隊成員的推薦團隊獎勵,與主網前挖礦公式中的方式相同,
  • ñ是節點獎勵,
  • 一種是 Pi 應用程序使用獎勵,並且
  • X是未來網絡生態所必需的新型貢獻,稍後確定,但也會設計成B的倍數。

簡而言之,S 和 E 保持與主網前挖礦公式相同,而新的獎勵如 L、N 和 A 已添加到當前公式中。 L 作為 I 的一部分添加; N 和 A 作為基於 I 計算的額外獎勵相加。換句話說,網絡仍然獎勵生長通過 E 和安全通過 S,同時激勵 Pioneers 對運行節點的貢獻權力下放通過 N,使用應用程序公用事業通過 A 創建,並鎖定穩定尤其是在 L 的最初幾年。此外,未來可能會通過 X 向 Pioneers 添加新類型的獎勵,以建立一個功能齊全的生態系統,例如獎勵創建成功 Pi 應用程序的 Pioneer 開發人員。 B 在很長一段時間內繼續存在,同時有一個年度上限以確保長壽在保持稀缺性的同時保持網絡增長。 事實上,所有的獎勵都可以用 B 表示如下。

這裡,

  • I(B,L,S) = B + S(B) + L(B)
  • S(B) = 0.2 • min(Sc,5) • B,其中
    Sc 是有效安全圈連接的計數。
  • E(I) = Ec • 0.25 • I(B,L,S),其中
    Ec 是活躍推薦團隊成員的計數。
  • L(B) = Lt • Lp • log(N) • B,其中
    Lt 是對應於鎖定持續時間的乘數,
    Lp 是 Pioneer 開采的 Pi 在主網上被鎖定的比例,最大值為 200%,並且
    N 是 Pioneer 在當前採礦會話之前的採礦會話總數。
  • N(I) = node_factor • tune_factor • I,其中
    節點因子= Percent_uptime_last_1_days • (Uptime_factor + Port_open_factor + CPU_factor),其中

    正常運行時間因子= (Percent_uptime_last_90_days + 1.5*Percent_uptime_last_360_days(360-90) + 2* Percent_uptime_last_2_years + 3*Percent_uptime_last_10_years),
    Port_open_factor= 1 + percent_ports_open_last_90_days + 1.5*percent_ports_open_last_360_days + 2* percent_ports_open_last_2_years + 3*percent_ports_open_last_10_years,
    CPU_factor= (1 + avg_CPU_count_last_90_days + 1.5*avg_CPU_count_last_360_days + 2* avg_CPU_count_last_2_years + 3*avg_CPU_count_last_10_years)/4。

    Percent_uptime_last_*_days/years是單個節點處於活動狀態並且網絡可以訪問的最後一個時間段的百分比。
    percent_ports_open_last_*_days/years是單個節點的端口為連接到網絡而打開的最後 * 時間段的百分比。
    avg_CPU_count_last_*_days/years是單個節點在最後一個時間段內提供給網絡的平均 CPU。
    調整因子是將 node_factor 標準化為 0 到 10 之間的數字的統計因子。
  • 一個(一)* =
    日誌 [
    Σ_across_apps {
    日誌(time_spent_per_app_yesterday_in_seconds)
    }
    ] •
    日誌 [日誌(
    0.8 • avg_daily_time_across_apps_last_30_days +
    0.6 • avg_daily_time_across_apps_last_90_days +
    0.4 • avg_daily_time_across_apps_last_180_days +
    0.2 • avg_daily_time_across_apps_last_1_year +
    0.1 • avg_daily_time_across_apps_last_2_year
    ) ] • 一世

    time_spent_per_app_yesterday_in_seconds是對於每個 Pi 應用程序,先驅者在前一天使用該應用程序所花費的總時間(以秒為單位)。
    Σ_across_apps總結 Pioneer 在所有 Pi 應用程序中的 time_spent_per_app_yesterday_in_seconds 的對數值。
    avg_daily_time_across_apps_last_*是 Pioneer 在過去 * 時間段內總計花費在所有 Pi 應用程序上的平均每日時間(以秒為單位)。

    * 請注意,當任何對數函數返回未定義值或低於 0 的值時(即對數函數的輸入低於 1 時),公式會將對數函數的值重置為 0,以便避免負面的挖礦獎勵或函數中的錯誤。
  • X(B) is to be determined in the future based on the new types of contributions, but will be a multiple of B and kept within the yearly supply limit along with other rewards.

As shown above, the expressions of S and E remain the same as in the pre-Mainnet mining formula, and will not be explained further here. Next, we will focus on explaining the changes to B, changes to I through L, and the additions of N and A.

Systemwide Base Mining Rate

Like in Pre-Mainnet mining, all of the terms in the Mainnet mining formula above can be expressed in Pi per hour and are designed to be a multiple of B. Hence, the equation can also be re-written as below. Every Pioneer can mine at least the Systemwide Base Mining Rate everyday, and will be able to mine at a higher rate if they also have other types of contributions that are calculated as multiples of B.

M = B • (1 + S + L) • (1 + N + E + A + X)

Unlike in the pre-Mainnet mining, B in Mainnet mining as in the formula above is no longer a constant across all Pioneers at a given point in time, but is calculated in real time and dynamically adjusted based on a yearly supply cap.

Given a yearly supply limit, it is impossible to keep a constant B like in the pre-Mainnet period because it’s unpredictable how much each Pioneer mines and how many Pioneers are actively mining during a period of time. The pre-Mainnet model was designed to incentivize growth during the beginning years to bootstrap the network. As the network achieves a certain scale, it also needs to ensure the overall health of the ecosystem. Therefore, an exponential issuance of the tokens through exponential network growth and a constant mining rate does not make sense any longer. The shift of B from being a constant to being dynamically adjusted throughout the year results from the need to incentivize Pioneers’ contributions meritocratically but also to keep the total rewards within a limit.

Thus, to solve the yearly limit problem while ensuring fairness for whoever mined Pi, B of a given day in the year is calculated as below. Here a day is defined as the last 24 hours before the moment a Pioneer starts a new mining session. Hence, different Pioneers will have slightly different days relative to their time of mining, and thus, potentially a slightly different B based on the calculation below. Each Pioneer’s B of their day stays constant through their mining session, that is, over the next 24 hours from the moment they start their mining session. B is calculated as follows:

  • Divide the remaining total Pi supply of the year by the number of days left in the year to get day_supply based on the remaining yearly supply,
  • add the multiples of B from all Pioneers actively mining within the last 24 hours, which represents a diverse set of Pioneers’ contributions, in the Mainnet mining formula above to get the sum_of_B_multiples of the whole network for that 24-hour window, and
  • further divide day_supply by sum_of_B_multiples and 24 hours to get B of that specific mining session.

Hence, for a given day of the year,
B = day_supply / (sum_of_B_multiples • 24h)

Under this framework, B on different days of the year will be different depending on how many Pioneers mined in the last 24 hours as well as what and how much contributions they made to receive the extra multiples of B by running nodes, using utilities apps or lockups, etc. This model also addresses any uncertainty with having X(B)—future types of contribution rewards for Pioneers—in the formula. Regardless of how much X is going to be, it will be kept within the same yearly supply limit without increasing the total supply and will only affect the division of rewards among different types of contributions. This dynamic mechanism allows Pioneers themselves, in a decentralized way, to make sure that (1) the rewards do not exceed the yearly supply limit, (2) the distribution of the yearly supply does not end early in the year, and (3) the rewards are divided meritocratically.

For purposes of illustration, let’s suppose there are only two Pioneers on a given day and B is the mining rate (expressed in Pi/day for this illustration)—a constant during a specific Pioneer mining session, but dynamically adjusted across different days:

Pioneer 1 has no app engagement (A=0), is not operating a Node (N=0), has no security connections (S=0), and has no active Referral Team members (E=0). They are in their 11th mining session (N=10) and are locking up 100% of their mined Pi (Lp=1) for 3 years (Lt=2). Pioneer 1’s mining rate on this day is:

  • M1 = I(B,L,S) + 0 + 0 + 0, or
  • M1 = B + {2 • 1 • log(10)} • B + 0, or
  • M1 = 3B

Pioneer 2 has no app engagement (A=0), is not operating a Node (N=0), has no lockup (L=0), and has no active Referral Team members (E=0). They have a full Security Circle. Pioneer 2’s mining rate on this day is:

  • M2 = I(B,L,S) + 0 + 0 + 0, or
  • M2 = B + 0 + {0.2 • min(Sc,5) • B}, or
  • M2 = B + {0.2 • 5 • B}, or
  • M2 = 2B

Here, Total Pi to be mined in the whole network on this day = M1 + M2 = 5B Let’s assume there are 500 Pi and 50 days left in the year.
Therefore, Total Pi available to be mined for this day = 500 Pi / 50 days = 10 Pi/day

Solving B based on the two equations above,

  • 5B=10 Pi ⇒ B = 2 Pi/day (or 0.083 Pi/hour)

Accordingly, Pioneers 1 and 2 will have their actual mining rates as follows:

  • M1 = 3 • 2 Pi/day = 6 Pi/day (or 0.25 Pi/hour)
  • M2 = 2 • 2 Pi/day = 4 Pi/day (or 0.17 Pi/hour)

Pioneer Base Mining rate

By comparison, the individual Pioneer base mining rate in the pre-Mainnet mining formula includes only system-wide base mining rate and Security Circle rewards. At Mainnet, a new component, lockup reward, is added to individual Pioneer base mining rate I. Lockup rewards L, along with the system-wide base mining rate B and Security Circle reward S, constitute the individual Pioneer base mining rate I. Since I is used as an input to calculate all the other rewards, as a result, the Security Circle and lockup rewards enhance the total Pioneer mining rate by: (1) by directly adding to the individual Pioneer base mining rate and (2) by boosting the any Referral Team reward E, nodes reward N, and app usage reward A.

Lockup Reward

At Mainnet, the lockup reward is meant to support a healthy and smooth ecosystem and incentivize long-term engagement with the network, while the network is bootstrapping the economy and creating demands. It is an important decentralized macroeconomic mechanism to moderate circulating supply in the market, especially in the early years of the open market when utilities are being created. One important goal of the Pi Network is to create a utility-based ecosystem of apps. Transactions for real goods and services in the ecosystem, rather than just speculative trading, are intended to determine the utility of Pi. As we launch the Enclosed Network phase of the Mainnet, one of the main areas of focus will be to support and grow the Pi app developer community and nurture more Pi apps to grow. In the meantime, Pioneers can choose to lock up their Pi to help create a stable market environment for the ecosystem to mature and for more Pi apps to emerge and provide compelling use cases for spending Pi – to ultimately create organic demands through utilities.

The lockup reward formula is reprinted here:

L(B) = Lt • Lp • log(N) • B, where
Lt is the Lockup Time period multiplier of B.

  • 0 → Lt = 0
  • 2 weeks → Lt = 0.1
  • 6 months → Lt = 0.5
  • 1 year → Lt = 1
  • 3 years → Lt = 2

Lp is the Lockup Percentage multiplier of B, where
the Lockup Percentage is the lockup amount over the Mainnet Balance transferred from one’s previous mining rewards (Lb), and the Lockup Percentage multiplier is as follows.

  • 0% → Lp = 0
  • 25% → Lp = 0.25
  • 50% → Lp = 0.5
  • 90% → Lp = 0.9
  • 100% → Lp = 1.0
  • 150% → Lp = 1.5
  • 200% → Lp = 2

log(N) is the logarithmic value of the total number of previous mining sessions (N).

Pioneers will have the opportunity to voluntarily lock up their Pi to earn the right to mine at a higher rate. First of all, the prerequisite of the lockup reward is that the Pioneer must be actively mining. Without mining in the first place, there will be no lockup rewards for any inactive mining sessions, even if Pi is locked up. As expressed in the formula above, all that the lockup does is to provide multipliers to B, so there will be no lockup rewards if B is 0 (which means the Pioneers is not mining).

Secondly, the lockup reward is positively associated with the contribution to the lockup, i.e. the duration of the lockup time period (Lt) and the amount locked up. However the lockup amount is accounted for by the percentage of a Pioneer’s total Pi mined (Lp). The maximum Pi that a Pioneer can lock up is twice as much as their Mainnet Balance that got transferred from their prior mining in the mobile app (Lb), i.e. 200% Lb. The reasons for having a 2X maximum lockup amount of one’s transferred Mainnet Balance (Lb) are to 1) prevent exploitation of the lockup reward and 2) further encourage other contributions to the Pi ecosystem, such as further boosting their mining, running nodes and using apps. This, in a sense, favors Pioneers who mine and make other types of contributions to the network.

Thirdly, Log(N) offers a higher lockup incentive to Pioneers who have a long mining history and presumably a large transferable balance to lock up. While the lockup reward formula generally favors equality by accounting for not the absolute amount but the percentage of their transferred balance (Lp) — which allows smaller accounts with a short mining history to lock up small amounts and yet receive the same lockup reward multiplier as big accounts — we need to add a Log(N) factor that accounts for miners with a long mining history, to counterbalance the bias in favor of Pioneers with small balances and provide enough incentive for long-history Pioneers with bigger balances. However, the effect of mining history on lockup rewards also needs to be capped. Thus, the formula applies a logarithm to the number of previous mining sessions N. For example, if a Pioneer mined almost everyday for the last 3 years, their total previous mining sessions (N) will be about 1,000. In this scenario, Log(1,000) equals 3, adding another multiplier to B in their lockup rewards. Keep in mind that to achieve meaningful lockup rewards for long-mining-history Pioneers, the amount of Pi they have to lock up is much more than smaller accounts.

Fourthly, one Pioneer can voluntarily have multiple lockups at different times with different amounts and durations. The calculation of the total lockup rewards for this Pioneer with i number of different lockups is to find the total lockcup reward multiplier of B, as expressed in the formula below. The formula below is the equivalent to the lockup reward formula above, with the only difference being that it accounts for multiple lockups of the same Pioneer to calculate their total lockup rewards, e.g. different durations Lti) and different amounts Lci) of each lockup at different time:

supply

The purpose of this formula is to calculate the total lockup rewards based proportionally on each lockup’s amount (Lc) over the total Mainnet Balance from previous mining (Lb) as a weight, multiplied by their respective lockup time period (Lt) and Log(n). So that, even though there are multiple lockups of the same Pioneer, more lockups with different settings will proportionally add to their total lockup rewards. The values of Lt, Lc, and log(N) are calculated and multiplied for each lockup i and then summed across various i’s, which is then divided by the value of Lb at a given mining session, to arrive at the value of L(B) for that mining session. This formula ensures that regardless of the Lb, as long as the Pioneer maintains the same percentage of their lockup amount over their Lb, the total lockup rewards multiplier will remain the same.

Lastly, when can a Pioneer lock up Pi? Pioneers can decide their lockup duration and lockup percentage of their transferable balance anytime they want as an overall account setting in the Pi app. They can even preselect these settings before they’re KYC’ed or ready to migrate to the Mainnet. As they and their Referral Team/Security Circle pass KYC, more of their Mobile Balance will become transferable. At the moment of the migration of their Transferable Balance to Mainnet, their preselected setting of lockup duration and percentage will automatically apply to the amount of balance transferred, resulting in two types of balances on the Mainnet: lockup balance and free balance, both of which will be recorded on the Mainnet blockchain and reside in the Pioneer’s non-custodial Pi wallet. Thus, lockups cannot be reversed once confirmed and must remain locked up for the entirety of the chosen duration due to the nature of blockchain. Any changes to this Pioneer’s lockup setting will take effect in their next balance transfer to the Mainnet.

This account-wide lockup setting allows Pioneers to lock up a maximum of 100% of their transferable balance from mobile to Mainnet. After Mainnet launches and Pioneers transfer their balances, Pioneers can also lock up more Pi directly on the Mainnet through a slightly different lockup interface later on. At that time, Pioneers can lock up as much as 200% of their already-transferred Mainnet balance acquired from their previous mining. The additional lockup allowance for more Pi than individually mined by the Pioneer can come from utility-based Pi apps transactions, i.e., making Pi from selling goods and services.

App Usage Reward

An overarching goal of the Pi Network is to build an inclusive peer-to-peer economy and online experience fueled by the Pi cryptocurrency through our app ecosystem. Therefore, Pioneers will have additional mining rewards for using Pi apps on the Pi apps platform through the Pi Browser, including ecosystem apps and third-party apps in the Pi Directory. The app usage reward for Pioneers helps the ecosystem in two ways.

First, it will give Pi app developers market access and increased impressions of their apps. Pi app developers will gain usage and product iteration opportunities from Pioneers, which has been one of the biggest barriers to creating viable decentralized applications in the blockchain industry. Decentralized application (dApp) developers do not yet have a plentiful, stable, and utility-seeking consumer market environment to test and hone their consumer products to create consumer utilities. Pi Network’s apps platform and the app usage reward are meant to provide that environment for dApp developers.

Second, the increased impressions and usage will potentially lead to increased spending of Pi by Pioneers in the Pi apps, thus increasing utility-based Pi demand in the market. Even though the impressions are incentivized through the app usage reward, the spending of Pi is not. This means that the Pi app usage reward to Pioneers helps the Pi app developers to the extent that Pioneers are at their door. Now what determines whether Pioneers will actually stay and spend Pi in their apps is how useful and engaging their products are and what values the apps can provide for Pioneers. This framework ensures that, for the purpose of Pi demand creation, organic market forces are at work that allow apps to compete on the basis of product quality and utility, ultimately allowing the best apps to emerge and stay in the market and generate real utilities and even more Pi demands.

Through the above two mechanisms, the app usage reward aims to achieve the gradual transition from extrinsic incentives to intrinsic motivations among Pioneers visiting Pi apps, and thus the transition from incentivized to organic usage of Pi apps in order to ultimately bootstrap a utility-based ecosystem of apps using Pi.

The app usage reward formula is reprinted here:

一個(一)* =
log [ Σ_across_apps { log(time_spent_per_app_yesterday_in_seconds) } ] • log [ log(    0.8 • avg_daily_time_across_apps_last_30_days +    0.6 • avg_daily_time_across_apps_last_90_days +    0.4 • avg_daily_time_across_apps_last_180_days +    0.2 • avg_daily_time_across_apps_last_1_year +    0.1 • avg_daily_time_across_apps_last_2_year ) ] • I

time_spent_per_app_yesterday_in_seconds是對於每個 Pi 應用程序,先驅者在前一天使用該應用程序所花費的總時間(以秒為單位)。
Σ_across_apps總結 Pioneer 在所有 Pi 應用程序中的 time_spent_per_app_yesterday_in_seconds 的對數值。
avg_daily_time_across_apps_last_*是 Pioneer 在過去 * 時間段內總計花費在所有 Pi 應用程序上的平均每日時間(以秒為單位)。

* 請注意,當任何對數函數返回未定義值或低於 0 的值時(即對數函數的輸入低於 1 時),公式會將對數函數的值重置為 0,以便避免負面的挖礦獎勵或函數中的錯誤。

Generally, the app usage reward formula takes into account two factors: time spent in apps and the number of apps used while crediting the history of app usage in the long term and capping the rewards to avoid exploitation. There are two main parts to the formula. The first part aggregates a Pioneer’s time spent across each app in the last mining session (i.e., in the previous day). The logarithmic function provides a positive function with diminishing returns, meaning that an increase in time spent on any one app will generally increase the rewards, but the positive effect of time spent on rewards decreases as more time is spent. This setup encourages Pioneers to generally spend more time on multiple diverse apps, helping the network to bootstrap the creation of diverse utilities. At the same time, it caps the rewards to prevent users from exploiting this reward by artificially keeping the apps open all day, which would not meaningfully contribute to utilities creation.

The second part of the app usage reward formula looks at a Pioneer’s rolling average of daily time spent across all apps in various time periods. The further back the time period goes, the less it is weighted. In other words, a Pioneer mines more Pi the longer they have been using the Pi apps, but their recent time spent on the apps counts more toward mining than their previous time spent further back in the past. In addition, as a matter of fact, the app usage history takes effect on the current mining reward only if the Pioneer also used Pi apps during their last mining session. This means that there is no passive reward for only the past usage. Once again, the use of logarithmic functions helps moderate the mining boost from app usage to avoid exploitation of the app usage reward. A noteworthy implication here is that Pi chat moderators who have been helping to guide Pioneers and monitor undesirable activities on Pi chats over the last two years will mine the app usage reward at a higher rate when the Mainnet launches.

Node Reward

Like on any blockchain, Nodes are at the heart of the decentralization of Pi. In Pi, instead of relying on centralized institutional nodes, we decided to open up the Nodes to any Pioneer with a computer connected to the internet. Aided by the global trust graph aggregated from individual Pioneer’s Security Circles from the mobile app, these Nodes will run the consensus algorithm to validate transactions and process blocks. Because the Nodes are critical to the decentralization, security, and longevity of the Pi blockchain, Node-operating Pioneers will receive additional mining rewards.

The node reward formula is reprinted here:

  • N(I) = node_factor • tune_factor • I,其中
    節點因子= Percent_uptime_last_1_days • (Uptime_factor + Port_open_factor + CPU_factor),其中
    正常運行時間因子= (Percent_uptime_last_90_days + 1.5*Percent_uptime_last_360_days(360-90) + 2* Percent_uptime_last_2_years + 3*Percent_uptime_last_10_years),
    Port_open_factor= 1 + percent_ports_open_last_90_days + 1.5*percent_ports_open_last_360_days + 2* percent_ports_open_last_2_years + 3*percent_ports_open_last_10_years,
    CPU_factor= (1 + avg_CPU_count_last_90_days + 1.5*avg_CPU_count_last_360_days + 2* avg_CPU_count_last_2_years + 3*avg_CPU_count_last_10_years)/4。
    Percent_uptime_last_*_days/years是單個節點處於活動狀態並且網絡可以訪問的最後一個時間段的百分比。
    percent_ports_open_last_*_days/years是單個節點的端口為連接到網絡而打開的最後 * 時間段的百分比。
    avg_CPU_count_last_*_days/years is the average CPU that the individual Node provided to the network during the last * time period. tuning_factor is a statistical factor that normalizes the node_factor to a number between 0 and 10.

The node reward depends on the uptime factor, port open factor, CPU factor, and the tuning factor. The uptime factor of a Node for a given period of time is the proportion of time the Node is active during that period. For example, a 25% uptime factor yesterday means that the Node was live and accessible for a total of 6 out of 24 hours yesterday. The Pi Node software tracks the time a particular Node is active. Starting in the Open Network phase, only a Node running functionally at a given point in time is considered active. This is a proxy for the reliability of the Node. However, for the historical data relevant to the mining reward, a Node is considered active if the Node app is open and connected to the internet even if it is not running functionally. This exemption for the past performance recognizes that the Community Node operators running the Testnet provided the network with important data and infrastructure to enable multiple iterations of the Node software and Testnet, and that it was not always the fault of the Node operator that their Nodes were inoperative.

The port open factor of a Node for a given period of time is the proportion of time the Node’s specific ports are detected to be accessible from the Internet during that period. Pi Nodes use ports 31400 through 31409, enabling other nodes to reach them through these ports and the network IP address. An open-port Node is able to respond to communications initiated by other Nodes, while closed-port Nodes are not able to receive such communications from other Nodes and can only initiate communications. Pi’s consensus protocol relies on Nodes sending a series of messages among each other. Therefore, open-port Nodes are critical to the operation of the Pi blockchain, and thus, worthy of a mining reward boost. In fact, the network aims to have at least 1/8th of the Nodes with open ports, and having an open port is one of the prerequisites for being a Super Node.

The CPU factor of a Node for a given period of time is the average number of CPU cores/threads available on the computer during that period. A higher CPU factor prepares the blockchain for future scalability, for example, the ability to process more transactions per block or more transactions per second. The Pi blockchain is not an energy and resource-intensive blockchain. The network is initially set to operate at one new block of up to 1,000 transactions (T) about every 5 seconds. Thus the network is effectively capable of processing up to about 200 transactions per second (TPS) or ~17M T/day. Should the blockchain get congested in the future, this limit can be increased to 2,000 TPS (~170M T/day) by increasing the block size from 1000 to 10,000 transactions per block. The higher the CPU contributed by Pi Nodes, the more room the network will have to grow and scale further in the future. Furthermore, higher collective CPU from Pi Nodes will allow novel peer-to-peer node-based applications to be built on Pi Network, such as decentralized CPU sharing applications that let computing power-intensive applications run or provide distributed cloud services. Such services will be further rewarding contributing nodes with additional Pi paid by the clients of those services.

Finally, a tuning factor normalizes the Node reward to a number between 0 and 10. This is meant to make Node rewards comparable to other types of mining rewards that recognize other contributions to Pi Network. During the Enclosed Mainnet phase (as explained in the Roadmap section), the Node reward formula is expected to iterate. For example, the use of logarithmic or root functions may potentially obviate the need for a tuning factor.

Having reliable Nodes running predictably over a long stretch of time is critical to the health of the blockchain. It is not a one and done contribution. Therefore, the uptime factor, port open factor, and the CPU factor are all calculated over varying time periods, where the value from more recent time periods are more heavily weighted than the time periods of equal lengths from a more distant past. Note, however, that the Node reward is a multiple of the uptime factor of the previous mining session. Hence, a Pioneer will not receive any Node reward in a given mining session if their Node was inactive for the entirety of the immediately preceding calendar day. Similar to the app usage reward, there is no passive reward for only the past contribution as a Node operator. This also means that a low uptime factor in the previous calendar day (even if the Node is active for a part of the day) will substantially reduce the Node reward in a given day despite high past Node contributions.

The Effect of KYC on Mainnet rewards

There will be a rolling grace period of six calendar months for a Pioneer to complete KYC. Thereafter, the Pioneer loses all the Pi mined outside of the rolling 6-month window and is unable to transfer the lost Pi to the Mainnet. The retention of the mined Pi in the 6-month window continues indefinitely until they pass KYC or the KYC policy changes. Note that this KYC-window mining framework will only begin when the KYC solution is generally available to all eligible Pioneers in the future, and will be announced to the community beforehand. The six-month restriction will not be immediately in place yet when we launch the Mainnet.

Because of the importance of true humanness in our social network-based mining, only the Pioneers who pass KYC will be able to transfer their Phone balance to the blockchain. Our objective is to have as many true Pioneers as possible pass KYC. As explained further below, the rolling six-month window serves the following important purposes:

  • strike a balance between giving Pioneers adequate time to pass KYC and creating enough urgency to pass KYC,
  • prevent unverified Pi beyond the rolling six-month KYC grace period from migrating to the Mainnet, instead freeing it up for mining by other KYC’ed Pioneers within the allocated Pi overall supply limit for Pioneer mining, and
  • limit KYC spam and abuse (see 30-day delay in KYCing new members below)

If Pioneers do not pass KYC in time, it delays the Mainnet transfer of their balances and the balances of other Pioneers who have them on their Security Circles and Referral Teams. Without balances on the Mainnet, Pioneers are not able to use payments in Pi apps, thereby undermining the growth of our utility-based ecosystem. A six-month window creates a sense of urgency for Pioneers while giving them adequate time to retrieve their mined Pi. The KYC verification process will generally take into account Pioneers’ likelihood of being real human beings based on Pi’s machine-automated prediction mechanisms run over the last three years. Newly created accounts will not be able to immediately apply for KYC verification, until after 30 days. This helps the network limit the ability of bots and fake accounts to spam and abuse our KYC process and prioritize KYC validation resources for real human Pioneers.

Finally, the lost Pi of the Pioneers who delay KYC verification beyond six months will not be transferred to the Mainnet and will not be accounted for in the calculation of the systemwide base mining rate (B) beyond the rolling six-month KYC grace period. Pioneers will, therefore, need to claim their Pi in time, or their lost Pi will be reallocated to B for mining in the same year by other verified Pioneers who can make full contributions to the network.


路線圖

Pi Network is unique in our technological and ecosystem design as well as the significance of our community input in development. This uniqueness is best served by a thoughtful and iterative approach that allows for community feedback, testing of products, features, and user experience, and phases defined by milestones. There are three main phases to our development: (1) Beta, (2) Testnet, and (3) Mainnet.


第 1 階段:測試版

In December 2018, we publicly launched our mobile app on the iOS App store as an alpha prototype that onboarded the initial Pioneers. On Pi Day, March 14, 2019, the original Pi whitepaper was published, marking the official launch of the Pi Network. At this stage, our app allowed Pioneers to mine Pi by contributing to the growth and security of the future Pi blockchain. As the eventual goal was to launch the Mainnet and build an ecosystem around the Pi platform, the Pi app running on the centralized Pi server enabled mobile phone users (Pioneers) to contribute their security circles that, in aggregate, built the trust graph required by the consensus algorithm of the Pi Blockchain, and in return, the Pioneers received mining rewards. Furthermore, the centralized phase allowed the network to grow, the community to form, and the Pi token to be accessible and widely distributed. This phase also allowed for the iteration of many technical features and Pioneer experience by leveraging community input throughout the development process.

The following major accomplishments were made during the Beta phase:

  • The Pi Network mobile app was listed and accessible through the iOS App Store and Google Playstore.
  • Pi Network grew from 0 to over 3.5 million engaged Pioneers.
  • The Pi Network community actively engaged with the project through the app home screen interactions and chat app.
  • Pi Network reached 233 countries and regions around the world.

第 2 階段:測試網

This phase started on March 14, 2020, marking another critical preparation to the transition to a decentralized blockchain—a live Testnet with distributed Nodes from all over the world. Pi Network’s Node software enabled individual computers to support running the Pi Testnet using Test-Pi coin. Test-Pi was available only for the purpose of testing and has no relation to Pioneers’ account balances on the Pi app. The Pi Testnet has reached over 10,000 fully functional community Nodes and over 100,000 daily active Nodes on the waiting list, and as explained in a later section, will continue to exist for testing purposes in the Mainnet phase.

Pi Testnet allows for the testing of connectivity, performance, security, and scalability of the blockchain, and allows Pi apps developers to develop the Pi apps before they can deploy their app on the Mainnet. During the Testnet phase, 3 major strategies were adopted: (1) decentralization through Testnet Nodes, (2) growth through the main Pi app for mobile mining, and (3) utility creation through the Pi apps platform on the Pi Browser. The Testnet ran in parallel with the Pi mobile mining app from Phase 1 and enabled decentralized community Nodes to get online and ready for the Mainnet. Specifically, the Testnet Nodes helped with the assessment of the blockchain’s performance, security, and scalability. It also helped Pi App developers test their apps against the Pi Blockchain. At the same time, the Pi mobile mining app continued to onboard millions of Pioneers, building the community and contributing to the security of the blockchain. The Pi Browser, along with the Pi SDK, enabled the community to create utilities and develop the Pi ecosystem.

The following major accomplishments were made during the Testnet phase:

  • Many versions of the Node software were released.
  • The Pi Platform was released along with key ingredients of our ecosystem infrastructure: Wallet, Browser, Brainstorm and developer tools.
  • Pilot version of the KYC app was introduced on the Pi Browser.
  • The project ran its first ever worldwide online Hackathon with thousands of participants from within the Pioneer Community.
  • Pi Network grew to over 30 million engaged Pioneers, and from 0 to over 10,000 fully functional community Nodes and over 100,000 daily active Nodes on the waiting list.
  • Pi Network reached almost all countries and regions in the world.

第三階段:主網

In December 2021, the Mainnet of the Pi blockchain will go live. The migration of Pioneer balances from their phone account to the Mainnet starts during this period. KYC authentication of a Pioneer precedes their balance migration to the Mainnet. In order to allow for sufficient time for millions of Pioneers to successfully complete their KYC verification, create utilities in the Pi ecosystem, and continue to iterate on our technology and ecosystem design, the Mainnet will have two periods:

  1. at first, firewalled Mainnet (i.e., the Enclosed Network),
  2. and then, open Mainnet (i.e., the Open Network).

The Enclosed Network Period

This period will begin in December 2021. The Enclosed Network period means that the Mainnet is live but with a firewall that prevents any unwanted external connectivity. Pioneers will be able to take time to KYC and migrate their Pi to the live Mainnet blockchain. Any balance migrated to the Mainnet can be used, by the choice of the Pioneer, to purchase goods and services in Pi apps, transfer to other Pioneers, or get locked up for a duration of time for a higher mining rate. KYC’ed Pioneers will be able to use their Pi on the Mainnet freely in an enclosed environment within Pi Network. However, this period will not allow connectivity between the Pi blockchain and other blockchains.

Advantages of the Two-Period Approach to Mainnet

There are multiple advantages to having an intermediate enclosed period to ramp up to the fully open Mainnet. This approach allows time for:

  • millions of Pioneers worldwide to pass KYC,
  • building and deploying more Pi Apps and allowing more utilities to be created and used,
  • transitioning Pi Apps deployed on the Testnet to the Mainnet, and
  • iterating on any modifications and adjustments to the Mainnet and the ecosystem before the Open Network.

The Enclosed Network period allows time for millions of Pioneers to KYC and migrate their Pi to the Mainnet. Only a small fraction of Pioneers have been able to complete their KYC around the launch of the Mainnet. Over the coming months, we will continue to roll out the KYC solution to more Pioneers and help them complete their KYC. If we moved directly from Testnet to Open Network, this would mean that the Pioneers who were able to KYC before others would have Pi available for use outside of the Pi platform while the Pioneers still waiting to complete their KYC would not yet have this privilege. The speed at which Pioneers all over the world are able to complete their KYC will depend on the speed at which each local community provides the KYC validator crowd work force as well as the speed at which individual Pioneers participate in the KYC.

Having the Enclosed Network period gives time for millions of Pioneers to complete their KYC and transfer their Pi to the Mainnet. This way, all the Pioneers who are willing and able to complete their KYC in a reasonable period of time get to use their Pi outside of the Pi platform at once. Given that external connectivity between the Pi Blockchain and other blockchains or systems is not allowed during the Enclosed Network period, this further helps Pioneers focus on transitioning into Mainnet without any influences external to the Pi Blockchain.

This period will also help the community focus on creating utilities and bootstrapping the ecosystem without any external distractions. Consistent with the vision of the Pi network to enable a utility-based ecosystem, this allows apps to deploy on Mainnet and create utilities for Pioneers. Pi apps will be able to switch from Testnet to Mainnet—to production mode for real Pi transactions. At this time, KYC’ed Pioneers will be able to spend their Pi on Pi apps, boosting utilities creation and bootstrapping the Pi ecosystem before the Open Network. This gradual and deliberate ramp to Open Network will help the apps, as well as the Pi Network, to uncover and resolve any glitches in the market and the technology. Thus, the Enclosed Network period is in line with Pi’s vision of a utility-based ecosystem and its iterative philosophy.

Moreover, the Enclosed Network will allow the Mainnet to run with production data and real Pi, which differs from Testnet. Data gathered during the Enclosed Network will help calibrate and tweak any configurations and formulae, if necessary, to ensure a stable and successful Open Network.

KYC Verification and Mainnet Balance Transfer

“Know Your Customer/Client” (KYC) is a process that verifies identification to distinguish genuine accounts from fake ones. The vision of Pi Network is to build an inclusive and the most widely distributed token and ecosystem for all Pioneers. The mining mechanism of Pi Network is social network-based, and the mining rate has halved 5 times so far as the social network size grew to over 1K, 10K, 100K, 1M, and 10M engaged members. Therefore, Pi has a strict policy of one account per person. This requires a high degree of accuracy to establish that members in the network are genuine human beings, preventing individuals from being able to unfairly hoard Pi by creating fake accounts. Pioneers’ KYC results will depend on not only identity verification, but also their name matching with the Pi account and screening against government sanction list. KYC, thus, helps ensure the true humanness of the network and compliance with the Anti-Money Laundering (AML) and anti-terrorism regulations.

As communicated at the founding of the network, to ensure true humanness, fake Pi accounts and scripted mining are strictly prohibited. These accounts will be disabled, and will not be able to migrate to Mainnet. Over the past three years, multiple technical mechanisms have been implemented to identify bots and fake accounts. For the accounts identified as highly likely to be fake by Pi’s algorithm, the weight is on these accounts to prove otherwise. These identified fake accounts will either be disabled or go through a much more rigorous review and appeal process. The allocation of KYC slots will be prioritized for accounts with a high likelihood of being true human holders.

Only the accounts with verified identities will be allowed to transition to Mainnet, and only the Pi balances attributable to identity-verified accounts will be allowed to transfer to the Mainnet balance. When a Pioneer and their referral team and security circle members pass the KYC determines if and when, and to what extent, a Pioneer can transfer their balances. Below is a hypothetical example to illustrate how the KYC verification of Pioneers affects their balances in migration to the Mainnet.

For simplicity, we define different concepts of Pi balances as follows:

  • Mobile Balance: The Pi balance currently shown in a Pioneer’s account in the Pi mobile app
  • Transferable Balance: The balance that has been allowed to be transferred to the Mainnet because the Pioneer and their specific associated individuals in the referral teams and security circles have passed KYC
  • Mainnet balance: The balance that has been migrated and transferred by the Pioneer to the Mainnet

Suppose individual 一種 is the owner of a Pi account who wants to transfer their Mobile Balance. Pioneer A will only be allowed to transfer any of the Mobile Balance to the Mainnet when their identity is verified, i.e., when they pass the KYC. Let’s say this individual has Individuals , C, D, and E on their referral team and Individuals D, E, F, and G in their security circle. So far, only individuals A, B, D, 和F have completed their KYC verification.

In this example setup:

  • 一種 is a mining Pioneer who has passed KYC.
  • , C, D, E are in the Referral Team of A.
  • D, E, F, G are in the Security Circle of A.
  • A, B, D, 和F have passed KYC.

Here, A’s Transferable Balance is the sum of the following three components:

  • Pioneer Rewards: Pi mined based on A’s Pioneer status across all mining sessions
  • Contributor Rewards: D and F’s contribution to A’s mining rate as Contributors in all mining sessions
  • Ambassador Rewards: Mining bonuses from all mining sessions when B and D as referral team members mined during the same session as A mined

As more of Pioneer A’s referral team and security circle members (i.e., C, E, and G) pass KYC, more portions of A’s Mobile Balance will become Transferable Balance—ready for A to migrate to the Mainnet, and ultimately become A’s Mainnet Balance.

During the Enclosed Mainnet period, any Mobile Balance that has not become Transferable Balance will remain in the Mobile mining app until the associated Pioneers in the referral team and security circles pass KYC and the corresponding amount becomes transferable to Mainnet. In the case of the above example of Pioneer A, the balance contribution by C, E, and G will remain as Mobile Balance for A in the mining app waiting for them to pass KYC in order for such balance to become transferable. If such associated accounts never pass KYC, the balance attributed to these non-KYC’ed accounts will expire at a certain date which will have allowed enough time for the whole network to KYC. The unclaimed balances due to lack of KYC will be discarded by not being transferred to the Mainnet at all, instead freeing it up for mining by other KYC’ed Pioneers within the allocated Pi overall supply limit for Pioneer mining as explained in the Pi Supply section.

Restrictions in the Enclosed Network

While transactions between Pi apps and Pioneers and Pioneer-to-Pioneer transactions are allowed within Pi Network, the Enclosed Network will have in place the restrictions as listed below. These restrictions at this stage help enforce the enclosed nature of the network:

  • There will be no connectivity between Pi and other blockchains or crypto exchanges.
  • Mainnet can only be accessed through the Pi Wallet and Pi apps on the Pi Browser.
  • The Mainnet blockchain will be accessible to any computer on the internet but only through a firewall to enforce the above rules.
  • There will only be Core Team Nodes on the Mainnet to ensure that the firewall is in place at all times.

The Enclosed Network will support the economic activities and growth of the Pi ecosystem. Thus, Pioneer-to-Pioneer transactions are possible through the Pi Wallet as KYC’ed Pioneers will be able to use the Pi Wallet to transact in Pi. Pioneers can also spend Pi in Pi apps on the Pi Browser, which can access the Mainnet through the Pi Apps SDK and the Pi Blockchain API. During the Enclosed Network period, an app on the Pi Browser can only use the Pi blockchain APIs whitelisted by the firewall to interact with the Mainnet.

The following uses of Pioneer-to-Pioneer, Pioneer-to-App, and App-to-Pioneer transactions will be allowed:

  • Exchange of Pi for goods and services through Pi Apps
  • Transfer of Pi between Pioneers for goods and services

The following uses will be prohibited:

  • Exchange of Pi for fiat currency
  • Exchange of Pi for other cryptocurrencies
  • Transfer for Pi for a future promise of fiat or other cryptocurrencies

We will enforce the above restrictions by adding a firewall to the Mainnet and by exclusively running the Mainnet Nodes for this interim period. Community Nodes will continue to run on the Testnet in the Enclosed Network period. We will continue to implement interface and other changes to the Nodes in preparation for the Open Network period where the Community Nodes will be able to run on the Mainnet. The restrictions of the Network to keep it enclosed will be relaxed as it reaches the next period—Open Network.

The Open Network Period

Depending on the maturity of the Enclosed Network economy and the progress of the KYC, this period may begin on Pi Day (March 14, 2022), Pi2 Day (June 28, 2022), or later. The Open Network period means that the firewall in the Enclosed Network period will be removed, allowing any external connectivity, e.g., to other networks, wallets, and anyone who wants to connect to Pi Mainnet. API calls will not be firewalled, and Pioneers will be able to run their own Pi Nodes and API services. Pioneers will have connectivity with other blockchains. Community Nodes can also run the Mainnet.


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