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Pi network – New White Paper chapters

December 2021

Ispod je novi nacrtPi opskrba i rudarski dijelovi našeg bijelog papiraobjavljeno u decembru 2021. Rudarstvo će se nastaviti u Mainnet fazi, ali sa stopom rudarenja koja se dinamički prilagođava unutar ograničene ponude. Za više detalja, pročitajte nove odjeljke bijelog papira koji razmatraju kako su nabavka i rudarenje funkcionirali prije Mainneta i opisuju kako i zašto će se promijeniti na Mainnetu. Zadržavamo i ranije objavljenePoglavlje mapa putana dnu za referencu. Vaše povratne informacije su dobrodošle prije nego što ažuriramo službenu bijelu knjigu na našoj web stranici kada počne Open Network.


Model tokena i rudarenje

Dobro osmišljen, zvučni dizajn tokena je ključan za uspjeh mreže kriptovaluta. Ima potencijal da stvori poticaje za pokretanje formiranja i rasta mreže, izgradnju ekosistema vođenog komunalnim uslugama i na taj način podržava kriptovalutu koja podupire takav sistem. Ono što mreža podstiče govori mnogo o tome šta je mreži potrebno – na primjer, rast mreže ili stvaranje korisnosti vođeno osnovama, puko skladištenje vrijednosti ili medij razmjene za kriptonativni ekosistem. Ovo poglavlje pokriva nabavku Pi i način na koji Pioniri mogu da iskopaju Pi u različitim fazama mreže, kao i temeljno obrazloženje dizajna za različite mehanizme rudarenja, uključujući izgradnju i rast mreže i podsticanje komunalnih usluga i potražnje. Imajte na umu da je Pi kriptovaluta sloja jedan koja radi na vlastitom blockchainu, na koji se ovdje odnosi "token".

Pi Supply

Vizija Pi mreže je da izgradi najinkluzivniju svjetsku peer-to-peer ekonomiju i online iskustvo, potaknuto Pi, najraširenije kriptovalute na svijetu. Da bismo ostvarili ovu viziju, važno je povećati mrežu i učiniti Pi široko dostupnim uz održavanje sigurnosti blockchaina i oskudice Pi. Iako su ovi ciljevi oduvijek vodili model nabave tokena i dizajn rudarenja, ključna razlika je: pre-Mainnet faze fokusirane na pokretanje rasta mreže i široku distribuciju Pi, a Mainnet faza će se fokusirati na nagrađivanje raznovrsnijih oblika Pioneer doprinosa uz cementiranje snabdevanje Pi.

Pre-Mainnet Supply

U ranim fazama, fokus Pi mreže bio je na rastu i osiguranju mreže. Bootstrapping za stvaranje kritične mase učesnika je najvažniji za svaku mrežu i ekosistem. Vođeni vizijom da Pi postane najraširenija kriptovaluta na svijetu, distribucija Pi i globalno dostupnost dodatno je dodala fokusu na rast. Pi-jev konsenzus algoritam se oslanja na globalni graf povjerenja, koji je agregiran iz sigurnosnih krugova pojedinačnih pionira. Stoga je bilo ključno podstaknuti pionire da formiraju pojedinačne krugove sigurnosti. To je značilo zalihu tokena dostupnih kao nagrade za rudarenje koje nije bilo eksplicitno ograničeno prije Mainneta.

U isto vrijeme, održavanje određene oskudice Pi je bilo važno. Kao što je objašnjeno u odjeljku Rudarstvo, mreža je usvojila mehanizam rudarenja gdje se stopa rudarenja mreže prepolovi svaki put kada se veličina mreže poveća za 10 puta, što rezultira nizom događaja prepolovljenja kada dostigne različite prekretnice angažovanih pionira. Sljedeći događaj prepolovljenja na osnovu ovog modela bio bi kada mreža dostigne 100 miliona angažovanih pionira. Trenutno imamo preko 30 miliona angažovanih pionira. Mreža je također zadržala opciju da potpuno zaustavi svo rudarenje u slučaju da mreža dostigne određenu veličinu, što je, međutim, tek trebalo da se utvrdi. Opcija ograničavanja ponude Pi nije korištena prije Mainneta, stoga je ukupna ponuda ostala nedefinirana.

Model snabdevanja pre-Mainneta sa mehanizmom rudarenja koji je prilagođen pristupačnosti, rastu i bezbednosti pokrenuo je zajednicu od preko 30 miliona angažovanih pionira sa milionima isprepletenih bezbednosnih krugova. Jednostavan, pristupačan način za rudarenje Pi na mobilnom telefonu pomogao je da se tokeni distribuiraju širom svijeta, uključujući među stanovništvom koje je izostavljeno iz kriptorevolucije zbog nedostatka kapitala, znanja ili tehnologije. Čineći to, mreža je izbjegla ekstremnu koncentraciju bogatstva evidentnu u Bitcoin-u i drugim kriptovalutama, pripremajući se da postane pravi peer-to-peer decentralizirani ekosistem s dovoljno velikim brojem učesnika i transakcija za kreiranje korisnih sredstava.

Mainnet Supply

Supply fuels growth and incentivizes necessary contributions to the network to achieve an organically viable ecosystem. To that end, mining rewards will continue after Mainnet but will take diverse forms to incentivize different types of contributions, which will be explained in the Mining section below. In regard to supply, the undetermined supply due to the pre-Mainnet mining mechanism that optimizes for accessibility and growth of the network presents a few problems for the Mainnet phase, including unpredictability in planning, over-rewarding and under-rewarding different types of necessary contributions in the new phase, and challenges to scarcity. To address these issues, the network will shift from its pre-Mainnet supply model that is completely dependent on network behavior to the Mainnet supply model where there is a clear maximum supply.

The issue of unpredictability for planning in the pre-Mainnet supply model surfaced in Pi Network’s first COiNVENTION in September-October 2020 where the community panel and community submissions discussed whether mining should be halved or stopped at the network size of 10 million at the time. The diverse voices of community members presented the following dilemma for the network. If mining continued based on the ongoing (pre-Mainnet) mining mechanism, then it raised concerns for the supply due to uncertainty, and thus, the scarcity of Pi. However, if mining stopped, it would hurt the growth of the network and prevent new Pioneers joining the network as miners, thereby undermining the accessibility of Pi. Even though the network moved on from that decision and halved the mining rate at its 10 Million size, this dilemma still remains and needs to be resolved.

Način na koji zajednica može postići kontinuirani rast i dostupnost uz rješavanje zabrinutosti oko ponude jedan je od glavnih faktora koji se razmatraju u dizajnu Mainnet modela tokena. Osim toga, nedefinirana i nepredvidiva ukupna ponuda otežava ukupno planiranje mrežnih tokena jer zajednica kao kolektiv i sam ekosistem imaju potrebu da koriste nešto Pi u svrhe koje su od koristi zajednici i ekosistemu u cjelini, osim samo rudarenja. nagrade za pojedince, o čemu svjedoči gotovo svaka druga blockchain mreža. Potrebno je definirati jasne alokacije za takve svrhe kolektivne zajednice. Stoga, s obzirom na trenutnu veličinu mreže od preko 30 miliona pionira i očekivani obim transakcija i aktivnosti u budućnosti, model snabdijevanja Mainnet ima jasanmaksimalna ukupna ponuda od 100 milijardi Piomogućavanje podsticaja kontinuiranog rasta i novih doprinosa uz otklanjanje zabrinutosti oko nepredvidivosti ponude.

The supply distribution will honor the original distribution principle in the March 14, 2019 white paper—the Pi community has 80% and the Pi Core Team has 20% of the total circulating supply of Pi, regardless of how much circulating supply there is in the Pi Network at any given point in time. Thus, given a total max supply of 100 billion Pi, the community will eventually receive 80 billion Pi and the Core Team will eventually receive 20 billion Pi. The following pie chart depicts the overall distribution. The Core Team’s allocation gets unlocked at the same pace as the community progressively mines more and more Pi and may be subject to additional lockup through a self-imposed mandate. This means that if the community has a portion of its allocation in circulation (for example, 25%), only the proportional amount in Core Team’s allocation (in this example, 25%) can get unlocked at most.

Pi Token supply

Ova gornja distribucija pokazuje da Pi mreža nema nikakvu alokaciju za ICO i NE pokreće bilo koju vrstu crowdfunding prodaje Pi. Stoga je svako lažno predstavljanje Pi mreže ili njenih osnivača radi prodaje ili listinga nezakonito, neovlašteno i lažno. Ovi imitatori nemaju veze sa Pi Core timom. Pioniri treba da se čuvaju svake prevare i da ne učestvuju. Pi se može slobodno kopati doprinoseći ekosistemu. Nadalje, sav iskopani Pi se može preuzeti samo iz Pi aplikacije preko glavne kontrolne ploče i zatim prenijeti u vaš Pi novčanik. Bilo koja web stranica koja od Pioneera traži da na drugi način zatraže Pi je lažna.

80% opskrbe zajednice je dalje podijeljeno na: 65% dodijeljeno za sve prethodne i buduće nagrade Pioneer rudarstva, na adresi GBQQRIQKS7XLMWTTRM2EPMTRLPUGQJDLEKCGNDIFGTBZG4GL5CHHJI25 na Mainnetu, 10% rezervisano za podršku organizaciji zajednice i ekosistemom koji će eventualno upravljati izgradnjom Pioneer-a , neprofitna organizacija u budućnosti, na adresi GDPDSLFVGEPX6FJKGZXSTJCPTSKKAI4KBHBAQCCKQDXISW3S5SJ6MGMS, a 5% je rezervisano za fond likvidnosti kako bi se obezbedila likvidnost za pionire i programere u Pi ekosistemu na adresi GB7HLNSHTLN74HTBOXXXJPPX74HBKXJPXV74HBKXJPZH74HBKXXVXFXVXFNXVXKXJPXV74KZHBKXVXFXVXFXVXKXFXVXFXNXFXVKXVXKXNXTZHBKXXFNXTZHKXXVKZNJFNZDJNJKZHKZNJNJNJNJNJNJKXJFXNZDJNXVXKZNJNJNJNJNJNJKXJFKZD Sljedeća tabela prikazuje distribuciju opskrbe zajednice:

Dodjela zajedniceDistribucija Pi zajednice (od predviđenih 80 milijardi Pi ukupno)
Pre-mainnet Mining Rewards20 milijardi Pi (približno)
Mainnet Mining Rewards45 milijardi Pi (približno)
Rezerva fonda likvidnosti5 milijardi Pi (približno)
Rezerva fondacije (grantovi, događaji u zajednici, itd.)10 milijardi Pi (približno)

65 milijardi Pi će biti dodijeljeno za sve nagrade za rudarenje – i za prošlo i za buduće rudarenje. Za prethodne nagrade za rudarenje, grubi zbir svih Pi koje su svi Pioniri do sada kopali (prije Mainneta) je oko 30 milijardi Pi. Međutim, nakon odbacivanja Pi koji je rudario lažnim nalozima i ovisno o brzini i učešću KYC-a, može se procijeniti da se Pi pre-Mainnet na početku otvorene mreže kreće u rasponu od 10 do 20 milijardi. Preostali iznos u zalihama od 65 milijardi Pi za nagrade za rudarenje biće distribuiran Pionirima kroz novi Mainnet mehanizam za rudarenje sa konceptualnim godišnjim ograničenjima ponude.

Takvi godišnji limiti ponude će se odrediti na osnovu formule opadanja. Godišnje ograničenje se može izračunati na više granularnoj osnovi, kao što je po danu ili dinamički po još manjoj vremenskoj epohi, ovisno o faktorima kao što su omjer blokade i preostalo napajanje mreže u to vrijeme. Takvo izračunavanje ograničenja ponude zasnovano na granularnim vremenskim epohama pomaže u postizanju bolje i glatkije krivulje alokacije kroz vrijeme. Radi jednostavnosti, pretpostavimo da je vremenska epoha godišnja. Formula opadanja bi značila da će godišnja granica ponude za prvu godinu novog rudarenja Mainneta biti veća nego za drugu godinu, za drugu godinu viša od treće godine, i tako dalje. Godišnja opadajuća formula i ovi brojevi će se morati finalizirati bliže pokretanju perioda otvorene mreže Mainneta kada budemo vidjeli koliko je Pioneera KYC-o i koliko su svog rudarskog Pi prenijeli u Mainnet.

Na Mainnetu, Pioniri će biti nagrađeni za njihov kontinuirani doprinos rastu i sigurnosti mreže. Kao što je objašnjeno u odeljku Mining, Pioneer-ove nagrade će biti dodatno diversifikovane jer mreži su potrebni raznovrsniji i dublji doprinosi koji se odnose na korišćenje aplikacija, rad čvorova i Pi zaključavanje. Pre-mainnet Pioniri će nastaviti da doprinose Pi i rudniku iz nagrada za rudarenje Mainneta, zajedno sa svim novim članovima koji se pridruže mreži, kako bi osigurali rast i dugovečnost mreže.

10 Billion Pi will be reserved for community organization and ecosystem building that will be, in the future, managed by a non-profit foundation. Most decentralized networks or cryptocurrencies, even though they are decentralized, still need an organization to organize the community and set the future direction of the ecosystem, e.g., Ethereum and Stellar. The future Pi foundation will (1) organize and sponsor community events, such as developer conventions, global online events and local community meetings, (2) organize volunteers and committee members, and pay full-time employees who are dedicated to building the community and ecosystem, (3) gather opinions and feedback from the community, (4) organize future community votings, (5) build branding and protect the reputation of the network, (6) represent the network to interact with other business entities including governments, traditional banks, and traditional enterprises, or (7) fulfill any number of responsibilities for the betterness of the Pi community and ecosystem. Further, in order to build a utilities-based Pi ecosystem, various community developer programs will be designed, created and carried out by the foundation to support community developers in the forms of grants, incubations, partnerships, etc.

5 milijardi Pi će biti rezervisano za fondove likvidnosti kako bi se obezbedila likvidnost za sve učesnike ekosistema, uključujući Pioneers i programere Pi aplikacija. Likvidnost je ključna da ekosistem bude održiv, aktivan i zdrav. Ako preduzeća ili pojedinci žele da učestvuju u aktivnostima ekosistema (npr. prodajom i kupovinom dobara i usluga u Pi), moraju imati pravovremeni pristup Pi. Bez likvidnosti, ekosistem neće imati zdrav protok Pi, što će štetiti stvaranju komunalnih usluga.

Kao što je objašnjeno u poglavlju Mape puta, jedna od prednosti perioda zatvorene mreže Mainneta je omogućavanje kalibracije na modelu tokena, ako postoji, na osnovu ranih rezultata Mainneta. Stoga je model tokena podložan podešavanju prije početka perioda otvorene mreže. Također, u budućnosti, zbog zdravlja mreže i ekosistema, mreža bi se mogla suočiti s pitanjima kao što su da li treba postojati inflacija nakon završetka distribucije 100 milijardi Pi. Inflacija može biti neophodna da bi se dodatno podstakli doprinosi kroz više nagrada za rudarenje, nadoknadili svaki gubitak Pi iz cirkulacije zbog nesreća ili smrti, obezbijedila veća likvidnost, ublažilo gomilanje koje sprečava korištenje i stvaranje korisnosti, itd. U to vrijeme, fondacija i njeni komiteti specijalizovani za ova pitanja će organizovati i voditi zajednicu da donese zaključak o ovom pitanju na decentralizovan način.


Mining Mechanism

Mehanizam rudarenja Pi mreže omogućava pionirima da doprinesu rastu, distribuciji i sigurnosti mreže i da budu nagrađeni u Pi meritokratski. Mehanizam rudarenja pre-Mainneta pomogao je mreži da postigne impresivan rast od preko 30 miliona angažovanih članova, široko rasprostranjenu valutu i Testnet, i graf poverenja agregata Security Circle koji će hraniti konsenzus algoritam Pi blockchaina.

Gledajući unaprijed u Mainnet fazu, Pi Mreži su potrebni daljnji doprinosi, kao i raznovrsnije vrste doprinosa svih svojih članova, kako bi postala prava ekonomija uz nastavak rasta i uključivanja. U Mainnet fazi želimo dalje postićidecentralizacija, komunalije, stabilnostidugovječnost,pored togarast, inkluzija, isigurnost. Ovi ciljevi se mogu postići samo ako svi pioniri u mreži rade zajedno. Stoga je novi mehanizam za rudarenje Pi dizajniran da postigne ove ciljeve podstičući sve pionire da različito doprinose mreži zasnovanoj na istom meritokratskom principu. U nastavku ćemo prvo opisati formulu rudarenja prije Mainneta, nakon čega slijede promjene u Mainnet formuli.

Pre-Mainnet formula

Formula za rudarenje pre Mainnet-a pokazuje meritokratsko određivanje Pioneer-ove satnice rudarenja. Pioniri koji aktivno rudare primili su barem minimalnu stopu i dodatno su nagrađeni za svoj doprinos sigurnosti i rastu mreže. Sljedeća formula odredila je brzinu kojom su Pioniri rudarili Pi po satu:

M = I(B, S) + E(I), gdje je

  • M je ukupna Pioneer stopa rudarenja,
  • I je Individualna Pioneer osnovna stopa rudarenja,
  • B je osnovna stopa rudarenja u cijelom sistemu,
  • S je nagrada Sigurnosnog kruga, koja je komponenta individualne Pioneer osnovne stope rudarenja iz važećih veza Sigurnosnog kruga, i
  • E je nagrada Referal tima od aktivnih članova Referal tima.

Sistemska osnovna stopa rudarenja B počela je sa 3,1415926 Pi/h i prepolovila se svaki put kada se mreža angažovanih pionira povećala za faktor 10x, počevši od 1000 pionira. Kao što je navedeno u nastavku, do sada je bilo pet prepolovljenih događaja:

Prekretnica angažovanih pioniraVrijednost B (u Pi/sat, zaokruženo na dvije decimale)Vrijednost I, sa punim sigurnosnim krugom (u Pi/sat, zaokruženo na dvije decimale*)
< 1.0003.146.28
1,0001.573.14
10,0000.781.57
100,0000.390.78
1,000,0000.190.39
10,000,0000.100.19

ovdje,

  • I(B,S) = B + S(B)
  • S(B) = 0,2 • min(Sc,5) • B, gdje je
    Sc je broj važećih veza sigurnosnih krugova.
  • E(I) = Ec • I(B,S) • 0,25, gdje je
    Ec je broj aktivnih članova referalnog tima koji rudare istovremeno.

Formula za rudarenje se također može napisati kao višekratnik od B:

  • M = I(B,S) + E(I)
  • M = [B + S(B)] + [Ec • I(B,S) • 0,25], ili
  • M = [B + {0,2 • min(Sc,5) • B}] + [Ec • 0,25 • {B + {0,2 • min(Sc,5) • B}}], ili
  • M = B • [1 + {0,2 • min(Sc,5)} + {Ec • 0,25 • {1 + 0,2 • min(Sc,5)}}], ili
  • M = B • [(1 + Ec • 0,25) • {1 + 0,2 • min(Sc,5)}]

Pre-Mainnet sistemska osnovna stopa rudarenja

Svaki aktivni Pioneer je primio najmanje sistemsku osnovnu stopu rudarenja (B). To jest, ako je Sc = 0 i Ec = 0 u gornjoj formuli za rudarenje, onda je M = B. U svakom slučaju, ukupna Pioneer stopa rudarenja bila je višestruka od osnovne stope rudarenja u cijelom sistemu. Vrijednost B je unaprijed određena prije Mainneta, a kao što je prikazano u gornjoj tabeli, promijenila se samo pet puta. Maksimalna ponuda nije određena zbog dinamičkog napretka mehanizma rudarenja pre-Mainneta, npr. koliko je velika mreža i koliko brzo mreža stiže do sljedećeg prepolovljenja. To bi se utvrdilo samo kada bi B pao na 0. Međutim, kao što je objašnjeno u sledećem odeljku, vrednost B u Mainnetu se izračunava u realnom vremenu, dinamički prilagođavajući se na osnovu ukupne godišnje ponude Pi i ukupnog koeficijenta rudarenja u svim Pionirima . Opskrba Pi je ograničena na Mainnetu.

Nagrada za sigurnosni krug

Pi-jev konsenzus algoritam se oslanja na globalni graf povjerenja, koji je agregiran iz miliona isprepletenih sigurnosnih krugova pojedinačnih pionira. Dakle, Pioneer je nagrađen sa dodatnim Pi po satu za svaku novu važeću vezu Sigurnosnog kruga, do 5 takvih veza. Sigurnosni krugovi su toliko centralni za sigurnost Pi blockchaina da je nagrada Security Circle podigla ukupnu Pioneer stopu rudarenja na dva načina:

  • direktnim dodavanjem individualnoj Pioneer baznoj stopi rudarenja (I), i
  • povećanjem nagrade tima za preporuke, ako postoji.

U stvari, pun sigurnosni krug—to jest, sa najmanje pet važećih veza—udvostručio je i individualnu Pioneer osnovnu stopu rudarenja i nagradu Referralnog tima.

Nagrada tima za preporuke

Pioniri takođe mogu pozvati druge da se pridruže Pi mreži i formiraju svoj tim za preporuke. Pozivač i pozvani dijele jednaku podelu bonus nagrada Referralnog tima, što je povećanje od 25% na njihove pojedinačne Pioneer osnovne stope rudarenja, kad god oba rudare istovremeno. Pioniri su rudarili više Pi po satu sa svakim članom Referalnog tima koji je istovremeno rudario. Ova nagrada tima za preporuke je priznala doprinos Pionira rastu mreže i distribuciji Pi tokena.

Mainnet Mining Formula

Ciljevi Mainnet faze su dalji napredak udecentralizacijaikomunalne usluge, osiguratistabilnostidugovečnost, i zadržatirastisigurnost. Nova formula, kao što je napisano u nastavku, podstiče raznovrsnije doprinose pionira da podrže ove ciljeve Mainneta, dok zadržava podsticaje za osiguranje i rast mreže. Kao i ranije, meritokratski je i izražava se kao stopa po kojoj pioniri kopaju Pi po satu.

M = I(B,L,S) + E(I) + N(I) + A(I) + X(B), gdje je

  • Mje ukupna stopa rudarenja Pioneer-a,
  • Ije individualna Pioneer osnovna stopa rudarenja,
  • Bje osnovna stopa rudarenja u cijelom sistemu (prilagođena na osnovu dostupnog skupa Pi za distribuciju za dati vremenski period),
  • L is the lockup reward, which is a new component of the individual Pioneer base mining rate,
  • S is the the Security Circle reward, which is a component of the individual Pioneer base mining rate from valid Security Circle connections the same way as in the pre-Mainnet mining formula,
  • E is the Referral Team reward from active Referral Team members the same way as in the pre-Mainnet mining formula,
  • N is the Node reward,
  • A is the Pi apps usage reward, and
  • X are new types of contributions necessary for the network ecosystem in the future, which will be determined later, but will also be designed as a multiple of B.

In short, S and E remain the same as in the pre-Mainnet mining formula, while new rewards such as L, N and A have been added to the current formula. L is added as part of I; N and A are added as additional rewards calculated based on I. In other words, the network still rewards rast through E and sigurnost through S, while incentivizing Pioneers’ contributions to running nodes for decentralizacija through N, using apps for komunalne usluge creation through A, and locking up for stabilnost especially during the initial years through L. Further, new types of rewards to Pioneers through X in the future may be added for building a fully functioning ecosystem, such as rewards for Pioneer developers creating successful Pi apps. B continues to exist over a long period of time while having a yearly cap to ensure dugovečnostrasta mreže uz održavanje oskudice. Zapravo, sve nagrade se mogu izraziti u B na sljedeći način.

ovdje,

  • I(B,L,S) = B + S(B) + L(B)
  • S(B) = 0,2 • min(Sc,5) • B, gdje je
    Sc je broj važećih veza sigurnosnih krugova.
  • E(I) = Ec • 0,25 • I(B,L,S), gdje je
    Ec je broj aktivnih članova referalnog tima.
  • L(B) = Lt • Lp • log(N) • B, gdje je
    Lt je množitelj koji odgovara trajanju blokade,
    Lp je udio Pioneer-ovog rudarskog Pi na Mainnetu koji je zaključan sa maksimumom od 200%, i
    N je ukupan broj Pioneer-ovih rudarskih sesija koje prethode trenutnoj rudarskoj sesiji.
  • N(I) = faktor_čvora • faktor_podešavanja • I, gdje
    Čvor_faktor= Percent_uptime_last_1_days • (Uptime_factor + Port_open_factor + CPU_factor), gdje

    Uptime_factor= (Percent_uptime_last_90_days + 1.5*Percent_uptime_last_360_days(360-90) + 2* Percent_uptime_last_2_years + 3*Percent_uptime_last_10_years),
    Port_open_factor= 1 + percent_ports_open_last_90_days + 1.5*percent_ports_open_last_360_days + 2* percent_ports_open_last_2_years + 3*percent_ports_open_last_10_years,
    CPU_faktor= (1 + avg_CPU_count_last_90_days + 1.5*prosječni_CPU_count_last_360_days + 2* prosječni_CPU_count_last_2_years + 3*pros.CPU_count_last_10_years)/4.

    Percent_uptime_last_*_days/yearsje postotak posljednjeg * vremenskog perioda kada je pojedinačni čvor bio aktivan i dostupan mreži.
    percent_ports_open_last_*_days/yearsje postotak posljednjeg * vremenskog perioda kada su portovi pojedinačnog čvora bili otvoreni za povezivanje na mrežu.
    avg_CPU_count_last_*_days/yearsje prosječan CPU koji je pojedinačni Čvor pružio mreži tokom posljednjeg * vremenskog perioda.
    tuning_factorje statistički faktor koji normalizira node_factor na broj između 0 i 10.
  • A (I)* =
    log [
    Σ_across_apps {
    log(vrijeme_potrošeno_po_aplikaciji_jučer_u_sekundama)
    }
    ] •
    log [ log(
    0.8 • avg_daily_time_across_apps_last_30_days +
    0.6 • avg_daily_time_across_apps_last_90_days +
    0.4 • avg_daily_time_across_apps_last_180_days +
    0.2 • avg_daily_time_across_apps_last_1_year +
    0.1 • avg_daily_time_across_apps_last_2_year
    ) ] • I

    time_spent_per_app_yesterday_in_secondsje, za svaku Pi aplikaciju, ukupna količina vremena u sekundama koje Pioneer provede koristeći aplikaciju prethodnog dana.
    Σ_across_appssumira logaritamsku vrijednost Pioneer-ovog time_spent_per_app_yesterday_in_seconds u svim Pi aplikacijama.
    avg_daily_time_across_apps_last_*je prosečno dnevno vreme u sekundama koje Pioneer provede u svim Pi aplikacijama u zbiru tokom poslednjeg * vremenskog perioda.

    * Imajte na umu da kada bilo koja od logaritamskih funkcija vrati nedefiniranu vrijednost ili vrijednost ispod 0 (to jest, kada je ulaz u logaritamsku funkciju ispod 1), formula resetuje vrijednost logaritamske funkcije na 0 kako bi se izbjegavajte negativne nagrade za rudarenje ili grešku u funkciji.
  • X(B) će se ubuduće odrediti na osnovu novih vrsta doprinosa, ali će biti višekratnik B i zadržati se unutar godišnjeg ograničenja ponude zajedno sa ostalim nagradama.

Kao što je gore prikazano, izrazi za S i E ostaju isti kao u formuli za rudarenje prije Mainneta i ovdje se neće dalje objašnjavati. Zatim ćemo se fokusirati na objašnjenje promjena u B, promjena od I do L i dodavanja N i A.

Sistemska osnovna stopa rudarenja

Kao iu rudarenju pre-Mainnet-a, svi pojmovi u gornjoj formuli rudarenja Mainnet-a mogu se izraziti u Pi po satu i dizajnirani su tako da budu višekratnik B. Dakle, jednadžba se također može prepisati kao dolje. Svaki Pioneer može rudariti barem sistemsku osnovnu stopu rudarenja svaki dan, i moći će da rudari po višoj stopi ako ima i druge vrste doprinosa koji se računaju kao višekratnici B.

M = B • (1 + S + L) • (1 + N + E + A + X)

Za razliku od pre-Mainnet rudarenja, B u rudarenju Mainnet kao u gornjoj formuli više nije konstanta za sve Pioneer-e u datom trenutku, već se izračunava u realnom vremenu i dinamički prilagođava na osnovu godišnjeg ograničenja ponude.

S obzirom na godišnje ograničenje ponude, nemoguće je zadržati konstantu B kao u periodu prije Mainneta jer je nepredvidivo koliko svaki Pioneer rudari i koliko Pioneera aktivno rudari tokom određenog vremenskog perioda. Pre-Mainnet model je dizajniran da podstakne rast tokom prvih godina kako bi se mreža pokrenula. Kako mreža dostiže određeni razmjer, ona također treba osigurati cjelokupno zdravlje ekosistema. Stoga, eksponencijalno izdavanje tokena kroz eksponencijalni rast mreže i konstantnu stopu rudarenja više nema smisla. Promena B od konstantnog ka dinamičkom prilagođavanju tokom godine je rezultat potrebe da se meritokratski podstiču doprinosi Pionira, ali i da se ukupne nagrade drže u granicama.

Dakle, da bi se riješio problem godišnjeg limita, a da bi se osigurala pravednost za onoga ko je rudario Pi, B određenog dana u godini izračunava se na sljedeći način. Ovde se dan definiše kao poslednja 24 sata pre trenutka kada Pioneer započne novu sesiju rudarenja. Dakle, različiti Pioniri će imati malo drugačije dane u odnosu na njihovo vrijeme rudarenja, a samim tim i potencijalno malo drugačiji B na osnovu izračuna ispod. Svaki Pioneer-ov B njihovog dana ostaje konstantan kroz sesiju rudarenja, odnosno u naredna 24 sata od trenutka kada započnu svoju rudarsku sesiju. B se izračunava na sljedeći način:

  • Podijelite preostalu ukupnu zalihu Pi u godini s brojem preostalih dana u godini da dobijete day_snaply na osnovu preostale godišnje zalihe,
  • dodajte višekratnike B od svih pionira koji aktivno rudare u posljednja 24 sata, što predstavlja raznolik skup doprinosa pionira, u gornju formulu rudarenja Mainneta da dobijete zbir_B_višestruke cijele mreže za taj 24-satni period, i
  • dalje podijelite day_snaply sa sum_of_B_multiples i 24 sata da dobijete B te specifične rudarske sesije.

Dakle, za određeni dan u godini,
B = dnevno_nabavka / (zbir_B_višestruko • 24h)

U okviru ovog okvira, B u različite dane u godini će se razlikovati ovisno o tome koliko je pionira rudarilo u posljednja 24 sata, kao i šta i koliko su doprinijeli da dobiju dodatne višekratnike B pokretanjem čvorova, korištenjem uslužnih aplikacija ili blokade, itd. Ovaj model se takođe bavi bilo kakvom nesigurnošću sa X(B) – budućim vrstama nagrada za doprinos za pionire – u formuli. Bez obzira na to koliki će biti X, on će se zadržati unutar istog godišnjeg ograničenja ponude bez povećanja ukupne ponude i samo će utjecati na podelu nagrada između različitih vrsta doprinosa. Ovaj dinamički mehanizam omogućava samim pionirima, na decentralizovan način, da osiguraju da (1) nagrade ne prelaze godišnji limit ponude, (2) da se distribucija godišnje ponude ne završava početkom godine, i (3) nagrade su podeljene meritokratski.

U svrhu ilustracije, pretpostavimo da postoje samo dva Pioneer-a u datom danu i B je stopa rudarenja (izražena u Pi/dan za ovu ilustraciju)—konstanta tokom određene Pioneer sesije rudarenja, ali se dinamički prilagođava različitim danima:

Pioneer 1 nema angažman sa aplikacijom (A=0), ne radi na čvoru (N=0), nema sigurnosne veze (S=0) i nema aktivnih članova Referal tima (E=0). Oni su u 11. rudarskoj sesiji (N=10) i zaključavaju 100% svog rudarskog Pi (Lp=1) na 3 godine (Lt=2). Pioneer 1 stopa rudarenja na ovaj dan je:

  • M1 = I(B,L,S) + 0 + 0 + 0, ili
  • M1 = B + {2 • 1 • log(10)} • B + 0, ili
  • M1 = 3B

Pioneer 2 nema angažman sa aplikacijom (A=0), ne radi na čvoru (N=0), nema blokadu (L=0) i nema aktivnih članova Referal tima (E=0). Imaju potpuni sigurnosni krug. Pioneer 2 stopa rudarenja na ovaj dan je:

  • M2 = I(B,L,S) + 0 + 0 + 0, ili
  • M2 = B + 0 + {0,2 • min(Sc,5) • B}, ili
  • M2 = B + {0,2 • 5 • B}, ili
  • M2 = 2B

Ovdje je Ukupan Pi koji će se rudariti u cijeloj mreži ovog dana = M1 + M2 = 5B Pretpostavimo da je u godini ostalo 500 Pi i 50 dana.
Prema tome, ukupan Pi dostupan za rudarenje za ovaj dan = 500 Pi / 50 dana = 10 Pi/dan

Rješavanje B na osnovu gornje dvije jednačine,

  • 5B=10 Pi ⇒ B = 2 Pi/dan (ili 0,083 Pi/sat)

Shodno tome, Pioniri 1 i 2 će imati svoje stvarne stope rudarenja kako slijedi:

  • M1 = 3 • 2 Pi/dan = 6 Pi/dan (ili 0,25 Pi/sat)
  • M2 = 2 • 2 Pi/dan = 4 Pi/dan (ili 0,17 Pi/sat)

Pioneer Base Mining stopa

Poređenja radi, individualna Pioneer-ova osnovna stopa rudarenja u formuli rudarenja pre-Mainnet uključuje samo osnovnu stopu rudarenja na nivou celog sistema i nagrade Security Circle. Na Mainnetu, nova komponenta, lockup nagrada, dodata je individualnoj Pioneer osnovnoj stopi rudarenja I. Lockup nagrade L, zajedno sa osnovnom stopom rudarenja u cijelom sistemu B i nagradom Security Circle S, čine individualnu Pioneer osnovnu stopu rudarenja I. Pošto I se koristi kao ulaz za izračunavanje svih ostalih nagrada, kao rezultat toga, sigurnosni krug i lockup nagrade povećavaju ukupnu Pioneer stopu rudarenja: (1) direktnim dodavanjem individualnoj Pioneer osnovnoj stopi rudarenja i (2) povećanjem nagrada za bilo koji tim za preporuke E, nagrada za čvorove N i nagrada za korištenje aplikacije A.

Lockup Reward

U Mainnetu, nagrada za zaključavanje ima za cilj da podrži zdrav i neometani ekosistem i podstakne dugoročan angažman s mrežom, dok mreža pokreće ekonomiju i stvara zahtjeve. To je važan decentralizovani makroekonomski mehanizam za ublažavanje optočne ponude na tržištu, posebno u ranim godinama otvorenog tržišta kada se stvaraju komunalna preduzeća. Jedan važan cilj Pi mreže je stvaranje ekosistema aplikacija zasnovanog na uslužnim programima. Transakcije za stvarnu robu i usluge u ekosistemu, a ne samo špekulativno trgovanje, imaju za cilj da odrede korisnost Pi. Kako pokrećemo fazu zatvorene mreže na glavnoj mreži, jedno od glavnih područja fokusa će biti podrška i rast zajednice programera Pi aplikacija i njegovanje više Pi aplikacija za rast. U međuvremenu, Pioniri mogu odlučiti da zaključaju svoj Pi kako bi pomogli u stvaranju stabilnog tržišnog okruženja za sazrijevanje ekosistema i pojavljivanja više Pi aplikacija i obezbjeđivanja uvjerljivih slučajeva korištenja za trošenje Pi – kako bi na kraju stvorili organske zahtjeve putem komunalnih usluga.

Formula nagrade za zaključavanje je ponovo odštampana ovdje:

L(B) = Lt • Lp • log(N) • B, gdje
LtjeLockup Množitelj vremenskog periodaod B.

  • 0 → Lt = 0
  • 2 sedmice → Lt = 0,1
  • 6 mjeseci → Lt = 0,5
  • 1 godina → Lt = 1
  • 3 godine → Lt = 2

LpjeMnožitelj postotka blokadeod B, gdje
Postotak blokade je iznos blokade u odnosu na saldo Mainnet prenesen iz nečijih prethodnih nagrada za rudarenje (Lb), iMnožitelj postotka blokadeje kako slijedi.

  • 0% → Lp = 0
  • 25% → Lp = 0,25
  • 50% → Lp = 0,5
  • 90% → Lp = 0,9
  • 100% → Lp = 1,0
  • 150% → Lp = 1,5
  • 200% → Lp = 2

log(N)je logaritamska vrijednost ukupnog broja prethodnih rudarskih sesija (N).

Pioniri će imati priliku da dobrovoljno zaključaju svoj Pi kako bi stekli pravo na rudarenje po višoj stopi. Prije svega, preduvjet za lockup nagradu je da Pioneer mora aktivno rudariti. Bez rudarenja na prvom mjestu, neće biti nagrada za zaključavanje za bilo koje neaktivne rudarske sesije, čak i ako je Pi zaključan. Kao što je izraženo u gornjoj formuli, sve što zaključavanje radi je da pruži množitelje B-u, tako da neće biti nagrada za zaključavanje ako je B 0 (što znači da Pioniri ne rudare).

Drugo, nagrada za zaključavanje je pozitivno povezana sa doprinosom blokadi, odnosno trajanjem vremenskog perioda blokade (Lt) i iznosom zaključavanja. Međutim, iznos zaključavanja se obračunava u procentu Pioneer-ovog ukupnog Pi iskopanog (Lp). Maksimalni Pi koji Pioneer može zaključati je dvostruko veći od njihovog Mainnet Balansa koji je prebačen iz njihovog prethodnog rudarenja u mobilnoj aplikaciji (Lb), tj. 200% Lb. Razlozi za 2X maksimalni iznos blokade nečijeg prenijetog Mainnet Balansa (Lb) su 1) spriječiti iskorištavanje nagrade za zaključavanje i 2) dodatno podstaći druge doprinose Pi ekosistemu, kao što je dalje jačanje njihovog rudarenja, pokretanja čvorova i korištenja aplikacije. Ovo, na neki način, favorizuje pionire koji rudare i daju druge vrste doprinosa mreži.

Thirdly, Log(N) offers a higher lockup incentive to Pioneers who have a long mining history and presumably a large transferable balance to lock up. While the lockup reward formula generally favors equality by accounting for not the absolute amount but the percentage of their transferred balance (Lp) — which allows smaller accounts with a short mining history to lock up small amounts and yet receive the same lockup reward multiplier as big accounts — we need to add a Log(N) factor that accounts for miners with a long mining history, to counterbalance the bias in favor of Pioneers with small balances and provide enough incentive for long-history Pioneers with bigger balances. However, the effect of mining history on lockup rewards also needs to be capped. Thus, the formula applies a logarithm to the number of previous mining sessions N. For example, if a Pioneer mined almost everyday for the last 3 years, their total previous mining sessions (N) will be about 1,000. In this scenario, Log(1,000) equals 3, adding another multiplier to B in their lockup rewards. Keep in mind that to achieve meaningful lockup rewards for long-mining-history Pioneers, the amount of Pi they have to lock up is much more than smaller accounts.

Četvrto, jedan Pioneer može dobrovoljno imati višestruko zaključavanje u različito vrijeme s različitim količinama i trajanjem. Izračunavanje ukupnih nagrada za zaključavanje za ovaj Pioneer sa i brojem različitih zaključavanja je da se pronađe množilac ukupne nagrade za zaključavanje od B, kao što je izraženo u formuli ispod. Formula u nastavku je ekvivalentna gornjoj formuli nagrade za zaključavanje, s jedinom razlikom što ona uzima u obzir višestruka blokada istog Pioneer-a kako bi se izračunale njihove ukupne nagrade za zaključavanje, npr. različita trajanjaLti) i različite količineLci) svakog zaključavanja u različito vrijeme:

supply

Svrha ove formule je izračunati ukupne nagrade za zaključavanje na osnovu proporcionalne količine svakog blokade (Lc) u odnosu na ukupni saldo Mainnet iz prethodnog rudarenja (Lb) kao težinu, pomnoženu njihovim odgovarajućim vremenskim periodom zaključavanja (Lt) i Log(n) ). Tako da, iako postoji više zaključavanja istog Pioneer-a, više zaključavanja sa različitim postavkama će proporcionalno dodati njihovim ukupnim nagradama za zaključavanje. Vrijednosti Lt, Lc i log(N) se izračunavaju i množe za svaki zaključavanje i, a zatim se zbrajaju kroz različite i, koji se zatim dijeli sa vrijednošću Lb u datoj sesiji rudarenja, kako bi se došlo do vrijednosti L( B) za tu rudarsku sesiju. Ova formula osigurava da će, bez obzira na Lb, sve dok Pioneer održava isti procenat svog iznosa blokade u odnosu na njihov Lb, množitelj ukupnih nagrada za blokadu ostati isti.

Lastly, when can a Pioneer lock up Pi? Pioneers can decide their lockup duration and lockup percentage of their transferable balance anytime they want as an overall account setting in the Pi app. They can even preselect these settings before they’re KYC’ed or ready to migrate to the Mainnet. As they and their Referral Team/Security Circle pass KYC, more of their Mobile Balance will become transferable. At the moment of the migration of their Transferable Balance to Mainnet, their preselected setting of lockup duration and percentage will automatically apply to the amount of balance transferred, resulting in two types of balances on the Mainnet: lockup balance and free balance, both of which will be recorded on the Mainnet blockchain and reside in the Pioneer’s non-custodial Pi wallet. Thus, lockups cannot be reversed once confirmed and must remain locked up for the entirety of the chosen duration due to the nature of blockchain. Any changes to this Pioneer’s lockup setting will take effect in their next balance transfer to the Mainnet.

Ova postavka zaključavanja na cijelom računu omogućava Pionirima da zaključaju maksimalno 100% svog prenosivog bilansa sa mobilnog na Mainnet. Nakon što se Mainnet pokrene i Pioniri prenesu svoje bilanse, Pioniri takođe mogu kasnije da zaključaju više Pi direktno na Mainnet kroz nešto drugačiji interfejs za zaključavanje. U to vrijeme, Pioniri mogu zaključati čak 200% svog već prenesenog Mainnet bilansa stečenog iz njihovog prethodnog rudarenja. Dodatni dodatak za zaključavanje za više Pi nego što je Pioneer pojedinačno kopao može doći od transakcija Pi aplikacija zasnovanih na uslužnim programima, tj. pravljenje Pi od prodaje robe i usluga.

Nagrada za korištenje aplikacije

Sveobuhvatni cilj Pi mreže je izgradnja inkluzivne peer-to-peer ekonomije i online iskustva koje potiče Pi kriptovaluta kroz naš ekosistem aplikacija. Stoga će Pioneers imati dodatne nagrade za rudarenje za korištenje Pi aplikacija na platformi Pi aplikacija preko Pi pretraživača, uključujući aplikacije ekosistema i aplikacije trećih strana u Pi direktoriju. Nagrada za korištenje aplikacije za Pioneers pomaže ekosistemu na dva načina.

First, it will give Pi app developers market access and increased impressions of their apps. Pi app developers will gain usage and product iteration opportunities from Pioneers, which has been one of the biggest barriers to creating viable decentralized applications in the blockchain industry. Decentralized application (dApp) developers do not yet have a plentiful, stable, and utility-seeking consumer market environment to test and hone their consumer products to create consumer utilities. Pi Network’s apps platform and the app usage reward are meant to provide that environment for dApp developers.

Second, the increased impressions and usage will potentially lead to increased spending of Pi by Pioneers in the Pi apps, thus increasing utility-based Pi demand in the market. Even though the impressions are incentivized through the app usage reward, the spending of Pi is not. This means that the Pi app usage reward to Pioneers helps the Pi app developers to the extent that Pioneers are at their door. Now what determines whether Pioneers will actually stay and spend Pi in their apps is how useful and engaging their products are and what values the apps can provide for Pioneers. This framework ensures that, for the purpose of Pi demand creation, organic market forces are at work that allow apps to compete on the basis of product quality and utility, ultimately allowing the best apps to emerge and stay in the market and generate real utilities and even more Pi demands.

Through the above two mechanisms, the app usage reward aims to achieve the gradual transition from extrinsic incentives to intrinsic motivations among Pioneers visiting Pi apps, and thus the transition from incentivized to organic usage of Pi apps in order to ultimately bootstrap a utility-based ecosystem of apps using Pi.

The app usage reward formula is reprinted here:

A (I)* =
log [ Σ_across_apps { log(time_spent_per_app_yesterday_in_seconds) } ] • log [ log(    0.8 • avg_daily_time_across_apps_last_30_days +    0.6 • avg_daily_time_across_apps_last_90_days +    0.4 • avg_daily_time_across_apps_last_180_days +    0.2 • avg_daily_time_across_apps_last_1_year +    0.1 • avg_daily_time_across_apps_last_2_year ) ] • I

time_spent_per_app_yesterday_in_secondsje, za svaku Pi aplikaciju, ukupna količina vremena u sekundama koje Pioneer provede koristeći aplikaciju prethodnog dana.
Σ_across_appssumira logaritamsku vrijednost Pioneer-ovog time_spent_per_app_yesterday_in_seconds u svim Pi aplikacijama.
avg_daily_time_across_apps_last_*je prosečno dnevno vreme u sekundama koje Pioneer provede u svim Pi aplikacijama u zbiru tokom poslednjeg * vremenskog perioda.

* Imajte na umu da kada bilo koja od logaritamskih funkcija vrati nedefiniranu vrijednost ili vrijednost ispod 0 (to jest, kada je ulaz u logaritamsku funkciju ispod 1), formula resetuje vrijednost logaritamske funkcije na 0 kako bi se izbjegavajte negativne nagrade za rudarenje ili grešku u funkciji.

Generally, the app usage reward formula takes into account two factors: time spent in apps and the number of apps used while crediting the history of app usage in the long term and capping the rewards to avoid exploitation. There are two main parts to the formula. The first part aggregates a Pioneer’s time spent across each app in the last mining session (i.e., in the previous day). The logarithmic function provides a positive function with diminishing returns, meaning that an increase in time spent on any one app will generally increase the rewards, but the positive effect of time spent on rewards decreases as more time is spent. This setup encourages Pioneers to generally spend more time on multiple diverse apps, helping the network to bootstrap the creation of diverse utilities. At the same time, it caps the rewards to prevent users from exploiting this reward by artificially keeping the apps open all day, which would not meaningfully contribute to utilities creation.

The second part of the app usage reward formula looks at a Pioneer’s rolling average of daily time spent across all apps in various time periods. The further back the time period goes, the less it is weighted. In other words, a Pioneer mines more Pi the longer they have been using the Pi apps, but their recent time spent on the apps counts more toward mining than their previous time spent further back in the past. In addition, as a matter of fact, the app usage history takes effect on the current mining reward only if the Pioneer also used Pi apps during their last mining session. This means that there is no passive reward for only the past usage. Once again, the use of logarithmic functions helps moderate the mining boost from app usage to avoid exploitation of the app usage reward. A noteworthy implication here is that Pi chat moderators who have been helping to guide Pioneers and monitor undesirable activities on Pi chats over the last two years will mine the app usage reward at a higher rate when the Mainnet launches.

Node Reward

Like on any blockchain, Nodes are at the heart of the decentralization of Pi. In Pi, instead of relying on centralized institutional nodes, we decided to open up the Nodes to any Pioneer with a computer connected to the internet. Aided by the global trust graph aggregated from individual Pioneer’s Security Circles from the mobile app, these Nodes will run the consensus algorithm to validate transactions and process blocks. Because the Nodes are critical to the decentralization, security, and longevity of the Pi blockchain, Node-operating Pioneers will receive additional mining rewards.

The node reward formula is reprinted here:

  • N(I) = faktor_čvora • faktor_podešavanja • I, gdje
    Čvor_faktor= Percent_uptime_last_1_days • (Uptime_factor + Port_open_factor + CPU_factor), gdje
    Uptime_factor= (Percent_uptime_last_90_days + 1.5*Percent_uptime_last_360_days(360-90) + 2* Percent_uptime_last_2_years + 3*Percent_uptime_last_10_years),
    Port_open_factor= 1 + percent_ports_open_last_90_days + 1.5*percent_ports_open_last_360_days + 2* percent_ports_open_last_2_years + 3*percent_ports_open_last_10_years,
    CPU_faktor= (1 + avg_CPU_count_last_90_days + 1.5*prosječni_CPU_count_last_360_days + 2* prosječni_CPU_count_last_2_years + 3*pros.CPU_count_last_10_years)/4.
    Percent_uptime_last_*_days/yearsje postotak posljednjeg * vremenskog perioda kada je pojedinačni čvor bio aktivan i dostupan mreži.
    percent_ports_open_last_*_days/yearsje postotak posljednjeg * vremenskog perioda kada su portovi pojedinačnog čvora bili otvoreni za povezivanje na mrežu.
    avg_CPU_count_last_*_days/years is the average CPU that the individual Node provided to the network during the last * time period. tuning_factor is a statistical factor that normalizes the node_factor to a number between 0 and 10.

The node reward depends on the uptime factor, port open factor, CPU factor, and the tuning factor. The uptime factor of a Node for a given period of time is the proportion of time the Node is active during that period. For example, a 25% uptime factor yesterday means that the Node was live and accessible for a total of 6 out of 24 hours yesterday. The Pi Node software tracks the time a particular Node is active. Starting in the Open Network phase, only a Node running functionally at a given point in time is considered active. This is a proxy for the reliability of the Node. However, for the historical data relevant to the mining reward, a Node is considered active if the Node app is open and connected to the internet even if it is not running functionally. This exemption for the past performance recognizes that the Community Node operators running the Testnet provided the network with important data and infrastructure to enable multiple iterations of the Node software and Testnet, and that it was not always the fault of the Node operator that their Nodes were inoperative.

The port open factor of a Node for a given period of time is the proportion of time the Node’s specific ports are detected to be accessible from the Internet during that period. Pi Nodes use ports 31400 through 31409, enabling other nodes to reach them through these ports and the network IP address. An open-port Node is able to respond to communications initiated by other Nodes, while closed-port Nodes are not able to receive such communications from other Nodes and can only initiate communications. Pi’s consensus protocol relies on Nodes sending a series of messages among each other. Therefore, open-port Nodes are critical to the operation of the Pi blockchain, and thus, worthy of a mining reward boost. In fact, the network aims to have at least 1/8th of the Nodes with open ports, and having an open port is one of the prerequisites for being a Super Node.

The CPU factor of a Node for a given period of time is the average number of CPU cores/threads available on the computer during that period. A higher CPU factor prepares the blockchain for future scalability, for example, the ability to process more transactions per block or more transactions per second. The Pi blockchain is not an energy and resource-intensive blockchain. The network is initially set to operate at one new block of up to 1,000 transactions (T) about every 5 seconds. Thus the network is effectively capable of processing up to about 200 transactions per second (TPS) or ~17M T/day. Should the blockchain get congested in the future, this limit can be increased to 2,000 TPS (~170M T/day) by increasing the block size from 1000 to 10,000 transactions per block. The higher the CPU contributed by Pi Nodes, the more room the network will have to grow and scale further in the future. Furthermore, higher collective CPU from Pi Nodes will allow novel peer-to-peer node-based applications to be built on Pi Network, such as decentralized CPU sharing applications that let computing power-intensive applications run or provide distributed cloud services. Such services will be further rewarding contributing nodes with additional Pi paid by the clients of those services.

Finally, a tuning factor normalizes the Node reward to a number between 0 and 10. This is meant to make Node rewards comparable to other types of mining rewards that recognize other contributions to Pi Network. During the Enclosed Mainnet phase (as explained in the Roadmap section), the Node reward formula is expected to iterate. For example, the use of logarithmic or root functions may potentially obviate the need for a tuning factor.

Having reliable Nodes running predictably over a long stretch of time is critical to the health of the blockchain. It is not a one and done contribution. Therefore, the uptime factor, port open factor, and the CPU factor are all calculated over varying time periods, where the value from more recent time periods are more heavily weighted than the time periods of equal lengths from a more distant past. Note, however, that the Node reward is a multiple of the uptime factor of the previous mining session. Hence, a Pioneer will not receive any Node reward in a given mining session if their Node was inactive for the entirety of the immediately preceding calendar day. Similar to the app usage reward, there is no passive reward for only the past contribution as a Node operator. This also means that a low uptime factor in the previous calendar day (even if the Node is active for a part of the day) will substantially reduce the Node reward in a given day despite high past Node contributions.

The Effect of KYC on Mainnet rewards

There will be a rolling grace period of six calendar months for a Pioneer to complete KYC. Thereafter, the Pioneer loses all the Pi mined outside of the rolling 6-month window and is unable to transfer the lost Pi to the Mainnet. The retention of the mined Pi in the 6-month window continues indefinitely until they pass KYC or the KYC policy changes. Note that this KYC-window mining framework will only begin when the KYC solution is generally available to all eligible Pioneers in the future, and will be announced to the community beforehand. The six-month restriction will not be immediately in place yet when we launch the Mainnet.

Because of the importance of true humanness in our social network-based mining, only the Pioneers who pass KYC will be able to transfer their Phone balance to the blockchain. Our objective is to have as many true Pioneers as possible pass KYC. As explained further below, the rolling six-month window serves the following important purposes:

  • strike a balance between giving Pioneers adequate time to pass KYC and creating enough urgency to pass KYC,
  • prevent unverified Pi beyond the rolling six-month KYC grace period from migrating to the Mainnet, instead freeing it up for mining by other KYC’ed Pioneers within the allocated Pi overall supply limit for Pioneer mining, and
  • limit KYC spam and abuse (see 30-day delay in KYCing new members below)

If Pioneers do not pass KYC in time, it delays the Mainnet transfer of their balances and the balances of other Pioneers who have them on their Security Circles and Referral Teams. Without balances on the Mainnet, Pioneers are not able to use payments in Pi apps, thereby undermining the growth of our utility-based ecosystem. A six-month window creates a sense of urgency for Pioneers while giving them adequate time to retrieve their mined Pi. The KYC verification process will generally take into account Pioneers’ likelihood of being real human beings based on Pi’s machine-automated prediction mechanisms run over the last three years. Newly created accounts will not be able to immediately apply for KYC verification, until after 30 days. This helps the network limit the ability of bots and fake accounts to spam and abuse our KYC process and prioritize KYC validation resources for real human Pioneers.

Finally, the lost Pi of the Pioneers who delay KYC verification beyond six months will not be transferred to the Mainnet and will not be accounted for in the calculation of the systemwide base mining rate (B) beyond the rolling six-month KYC grace period. Pioneers will, therefore, need to claim their Pi in time, or their lost Pi will be reallocated to B for mining in the same year by other verified Pioneers who can make full contributions to the network.


Roadmap

Pi Network is unique in our technological and ecosystem design as well as the significance of our community input in development. This uniqueness is best served by a thoughtful and iterative approach that allows for community feedback, testing of products, features, and user experience, and phases defined by milestones. There are three main phases to our development: (1) Beta, (2) Testnet, and (3) Mainnet.


Phase 1: Beta

In December 2018, we publicly launched our mobile app on the iOS App store as an alpha prototype that onboarded the initial Pioneers. On Pi Day, March 14, 2019, the original Pi whitepaper was published, marking the official launch of the Pi Network. At this stage, our app allowed Pioneers to mine Pi by contributing to the growth and security of the future Pi blockchain. As the eventual goal was to launch the Mainnet and build an ecosystem around the Pi platform, the Pi app running on the centralized Pi server enabled mobile phone users (Pioneers) to contribute their security circles that, in aggregate, built the trust graph required by the consensus algorithm of the Pi Blockchain, and in return, the Pioneers received mining rewards. Furthermore, the centralized phase allowed the network to grow, the community to form, and the Pi token to be accessible and widely distributed. This phase also allowed for the iteration of many technical features and Pioneer experience by leveraging community input throughout the development process.

The following major accomplishments were made during the Beta phase:

  • The Pi Network mobile app was listed and accessible through the iOS App Store and Google Playstore.
  • Pi Network grew from 0 to over 3.5 million engaged Pioneers.
  • The Pi Network community actively engaged with the project through the app home screen interactions and chat app.
  • Pi Network reached 233 countries and regions around the world.

Phase 2: Testnet

This phase started on March 14, 2020, marking another critical preparation to the transition to a decentralized blockchain—a live Testnet with distributed Nodes from all over the world. Pi Network’s Node software enabled individual computers to support running the Pi Testnet using Test-Pi coin. Test-Pi was available only for the purpose of testing and has no relation to Pioneers’ account balances on the Pi app. The Pi Testnet has reached over 10,000 fully functional community Nodes and over 100,000 daily active Nodes on the waiting list, and as explained in a later section, will continue to exist for testing purposes in the Mainnet phase.

Pi Testnet allows for the testing of connectivity, performance, security, and scalability of the blockchain, and allows Pi apps developers to develop the Pi apps before they can deploy their app on the Mainnet. During the Testnet phase, 3 major strategies were adopted: (1) decentralization through Testnet Nodes, (2) growth through the main Pi app for mobile mining, and (3) utility creation through the Pi apps platform on the Pi Browser. The Testnet ran in parallel with the Pi mobile mining app from Phase 1 and enabled decentralized community Nodes to get online and ready for the Mainnet. Specifically, the Testnet Nodes helped with the assessment of the blockchain’s performance, security, and scalability. It also helped Pi App developers test their apps against the Pi Blockchain. At the same time, the Pi mobile mining app continued to onboard millions of Pioneers, building the community and contributing to the security of the blockchain. The Pi Browser, along with the Pi SDK, enabled the community to create utilities and develop the Pi ecosystem.

The following major accomplishments were made during the Testnet phase:

  • Many versions of the Node software were released.
  • The Pi Platform was released along with key ingredients of our ecosystem infrastructure: Wallet, Browser, Brainstorm and developer tools.
  • Pilot version of the KYC app was introduced on the Pi Browser.
  • The project ran its first ever worldwide online Hackathon with thousands of participants from within the Pioneer Community.
  • Pi Network grew to over 30 million engaged Pioneers, and from 0 to over 10,000 fully functional community Nodes and over 100,000 daily active Nodes on the waiting list.
  • Pi Network reached almost all countries and regions in the world.

Phase 3: Mainnet

In December 2021, the Mainnet of the Pi blockchain will go live. The migration of Pioneer balances from their phone account to the Mainnet starts during this period. KYC authentication of a Pioneer precedes their balance migration to the Mainnet. In order to allow for sufficient time for millions of Pioneers to successfully complete their KYC verification, create utilities in the Pi ecosystem, and continue to iterate on our technology and ecosystem design, the Mainnet will have two periods:

  1. at first, firewalled Mainnet (i.e., the Enclosed Network),
  2. and then, open Mainnet (i.e., the Open Network).

The Enclosed Network Period

This period will begin in December 2021. The Enclosed Network period means that the Mainnet is live but with a firewall that prevents any unwanted external connectivity. Pioneers will be able to take time to KYC and migrate their Pi to the live Mainnet blockchain. Any balance migrated to the Mainnet can be used, by the choice of the Pioneer, to purchase goods and services in Pi apps, transfer to other Pioneers, or get locked up for a duration of time for a higher mining rate. KYC’ed Pioneers will be able to use their Pi on the Mainnet freely in an enclosed environment within Pi Network. However, this period will not allow connectivity between the Pi blockchain and other blockchains.

Advantages of the Two-Period Approach to Mainnet

There are multiple advantages to having an intermediate enclosed period to ramp up to the fully open Mainnet. This approach allows time for:

  • millions of Pioneers worldwide to pass KYC,
  • building and deploying more Pi Apps and allowing more utilities to be created and used,
  • transitioning Pi Apps deployed on the Testnet to the Mainnet, and
  • iterating on any modifications and adjustments to the Mainnet and the ecosystem before the Open Network.

The Enclosed Network period allows time for millions of Pioneers to KYC and migrate their Pi to the Mainnet. Only a small fraction of Pioneers have been able to complete their KYC around the launch of the Mainnet. Over the coming months, we will continue to roll out the KYC solution to more Pioneers and help them complete their KYC. If we moved directly from Testnet to Open Network, this would mean that the Pioneers who were able to KYC before others would have Pi available for use outside of the Pi platform while the Pioneers still waiting to complete their KYC would not yet have this privilege. The speed at which Pioneers all over the world are able to complete their KYC will depend on the speed at which each local community provides the KYC validator crowd work force as well as the speed at which individual Pioneers participate in the KYC.

Having the Enclosed Network period gives time for millions of Pioneers to complete their KYC and transfer their Pi to the Mainnet. This way, all the Pioneers who are willing and able to complete their KYC in a reasonable period of time get to use their Pi outside of the Pi platform at once. Given that external connectivity between the Pi Blockchain and other blockchains or systems is not allowed during the Enclosed Network period, this further helps Pioneers focus on transitioning into Mainnet without any influences external to the Pi Blockchain.

This period will also help the community focus on creating utilities and bootstrapping the ecosystem without any external distractions. Consistent with the vision of the Pi network to enable a utility-based ecosystem, this allows apps to deploy on Mainnet and create utilities for Pioneers. Pi apps will be able to switch from Testnet to Mainnet—to production mode for real Pi transactions. At this time, KYC’ed Pioneers will be able to spend their Pi on Pi apps, boosting utilities creation and bootstrapping the Pi ecosystem before the Open Network. This gradual and deliberate ramp to Open Network will help the apps, as well as the Pi Network, to uncover and resolve any glitches in the market and the technology. Thus, the Enclosed Network period is in line with Pi’s vision of a utility-based ecosystem and its iterative philosophy.

Moreover, the Enclosed Network will allow the Mainnet to run with production data and real Pi, which differs from Testnet. Data gathered during the Enclosed Network will help calibrate and tweak any configurations and formulae, if necessary, to ensure a stable and successful Open Network.

KYC Verification and Mainnet Balance Transfer

“Know Your Customer/Client” (KYC) is a process that verifies identification to distinguish genuine accounts from fake ones. The vision of Pi Network is to build an inclusive and the most widely distributed token and ecosystem for all Pioneers. The mining mechanism of Pi Network is social network-based, and the mining rate has halved 5 times so far as the social network size grew to over 1K, 10K, 100K, 1M, and 10M engaged members. Therefore, Pi has a strict policy of one account per person. This requires a high degree of accuracy to establish that members in the network are genuine human beings, preventing individuals from being able to unfairly hoard Pi by creating fake accounts. Pioneers’ KYC results will depend on not only identity verification, but also their name matching with the Pi account and screening against government sanction list. KYC, thus, helps ensure the true humanness of the network and compliance with the Anti-Money Laundering (AML) and anti-terrorism regulations.

As communicated at the founding of the network, to ensure true humanness, fake Pi accounts and scripted mining are strictly prohibited. These accounts will be disabled, and will not be able to migrate to Mainnet. Over the past three years, multiple technical mechanisms have been implemented to identify bots and fake accounts. For the accounts identified as highly likely to be fake by Pi’s algorithm, the weight is on these accounts to prove otherwise. These identified fake accounts will either be disabled or go through a much more rigorous review and appeal process. The allocation of KYC slots will be prioritized for accounts with a high likelihood of being true human holders.

Only the accounts with verified identities will be allowed to transition to Mainnet, and only the Pi balances attributable to identity-verified accounts will be allowed to transfer to the Mainnet balance. When a Pioneer and their referral team and security circle members pass the KYC determines if and when, and to what extent, a Pioneer can transfer their balances. Below is a hypothetical example to illustrate how the KYC verification of Pioneers affects their balances in migration to the Mainnet.

For simplicity, we define different concepts of Pi balances as follows:

  • Mobile Balance: The Pi balance currently shown in a Pioneer’s account in the Pi mobile app
  • Transferable Balance: The balance that has been allowed to be transferred to the Mainnet because the Pioneer and their specific associated individuals in the referral teams and security circles have passed KYC
  • Mainnet balance: The balance that has been migrated and transferred by the Pioneer to the Mainnet

Suppose individual A is the owner of a Pi account who wants to transfer their Mobile Balance. Pioneer A will only be allowed to transfer any of the Mobile Balance to the Mainnet when their identity is verified, i.e., when they pass the KYC. Let’s say this individual has Individuals B, C, D, and E on their referral team and Individuals D, E, F, and G in their security circle. So far, only individuals A, B, D, iF have completed their KYC verification.

In this example setup:

  • A is a mining Pioneer who has passed KYC.
  • B, C, D, E are in the Referral Team of A.
  • D, E, F, G are in the Security Circle of A.
  • A, B, D, iF have passed KYC.

Here, A’s Transferable Balance is the sum of the following three components:

  • Pioneer Rewards: Pi mined based on A’s Pioneer status across all mining sessions
  • Contributor Rewards: D and F’s contribution to A’s mining rate as Contributors in all mining sessions
  • Ambassador Rewards: Mining bonuses from all mining sessions when B and D as referral team members mined during the same session as A mined

As more of Pioneer A’s referral team and security circle members (i.e., C, E, and G) pass KYC, more portions of A’s Mobile Balance will become Transferable Balance—ready for A to migrate to the Mainnet, and ultimately become A’s Mainnet Balance.

During the Enclosed Mainnet period, any Mobile Balance that has not become Transferable Balance will remain in the Mobile mining app until the associated Pioneers in the referral team and security circles pass KYC and the corresponding amount becomes transferable to Mainnet. In the case of the above example of Pioneer A, the balance contribution by C, E, and G will remain as Mobile Balance for A in the mining app waiting for them to pass KYC in order for such balance to become transferable. If such associated accounts never pass KYC, the balance attributed to these non-KYC’ed accounts will expire at a certain date which will have allowed enough time for the whole network to KYC. The unclaimed balances due to lack of KYC will be discarded by not being transferred to the Mainnet at all, instead freeing it up for mining by other KYC’ed Pioneers within the allocated Pi overall supply limit for Pioneer mining as explained in the Pi Supply section.

Restrictions in the Enclosed Network

While transactions between Pi apps and Pioneers and Pioneer-to-Pioneer transactions are allowed within Pi Network, the Enclosed Network will have in place the restrictions as listed below. These restrictions at this stage help enforce the enclosed nature of the network:

  • There will be no connectivity between Pi and other blockchains or crypto exchanges.
  • Mainnet can only be accessed through the Pi Wallet and Pi apps on the Pi Browser.
  • The Mainnet blockchain will be accessible to any computer on the internet but only through a firewall to enforce the above rules.
  • There will only be Core Team Nodes on the Mainnet to ensure that the firewall is in place at all times.

The Enclosed Network will support the economic activities and growth of the Pi ecosystem. Thus, Pioneer-to-Pioneer transactions are possible through the Pi Wallet as KYC’ed Pioneers will be able to use the Pi Wallet to transact in Pi. Pioneers can also spend Pi in Pi apps on the Pi Browser, which can access the Mainnet through the Pi Apps SDK and the Pi Blockchain API. During the Enclosed Network period, an app on the Pi Browser can only use the Pi blockchain APIs whitelisted by the firewall to interact with the Mainnet.

The following uses of Pioneer-to-Pioneer, Pioneer-to-App, and App-to-Pioneer transactions will be allowed:

  • Exchange of Pi for goods and services through Pi Apps
  • Transfer of Pi between Pioneers for goods and services

The following uses will be prohibited:

  • Exchange of Pi for fiat currency
  • Exchange of Pi for other cryptocurrencies
  • Transfer for Pi for a future promise of fiat or other cryptocurrencies

We will enforce the above restrictions by adding a firewall to the Mainnet and by exclusively running the Mainnet Nodes for this interim period. Community Nodes will continue to run on the Testnet in the Enclosed Network period. We will continue to implement interface and other changes to the Nodes in preparation for the Open Network period where the Community Nodes will be able to run on the Mainnet. The restrictions of the Network to keep it enclosed will be relaxed as it reaches the next period—Open Network.

The Open Network Period

Depending on the maturity of the Enclosed Network economy and the progress of the KYC, this period may begin on Pi Day (March 14, 2022), Pi2 Day (June 28, 2022), or later. The Open Network period means that the firewall in the Enclosed Network period will be removed, allowing any external connectivity, e.g., to other networks, wallets, and anyone who wants to connect to Pi Mainnet. API calls will not be firewalled, and Pioneers will be able to run their own Pi Nodes and API services. Pioneers will have connectivity with other blockchains. Community Nodes can also run the Mainnet.


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